Abstract

We present a type of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings based on an in-grating bubble fabricated by femtosecond (fs) laser ablation together with a fusion-splicing technique. A microchannel vertically crossing the bubble is drilled by fs laser to allow liquid to flow in or out. By filling different refractive index (RI) liquid into the bubble, the phase-shift peak is found to experience a linear red shift with the increase of RI, while little contribution to the change of phase shift comes from the temperature and axial strain. Therefore, such a PS-FBG could be used to develop a promising tunable optical filter and sensor.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

C. R. Liao, Y. H. Li, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, Appl. Opt. 48, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

2001 (3)

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, and R. Stubbe, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 31, 1440 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kringlebotn, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 19, 2101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

Archambault, J. L.

Armes, D.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Azana, J.

Bartelt, H.

Bartelta, H.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

Bennion, I.

K. M. Zhou, Z. J. Yan, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Express 19, 11769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, J.

Brueckner, S.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, Appl. Opt. 48, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazão, O.

Galzerano, G.

Gatti, D.

Grattan, K. T. V.

C. R. Liao, Y. H. Li, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guerreiro, A.

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T. Y.

Janner, D.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kautz, M.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, Appl. Opt. 48, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Laming, R. I.

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 31, 1440 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Li, L.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Li, M.

Li, Y. H.

C. R. Liao, Y. H. Li, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Loh, W. H.

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 31, 1440 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Longhi, S.

Lu, C.

Luo, A.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Margulis, W.

Matos, C. J. S.

Mckee, P. F.

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mizunami, T.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Payne, D. N.

Qu, R. H.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Ran, Z. L.

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Rothhardt, M.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, Appl. Opt. 48, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, T.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, and T. Shimomura, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Silva, S. F. O.

Stubbe, R.

Sun, T.

C. R. Liao, Y. H. Li, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

Valente, L. C. G.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, Appl. Opt. 48, 1963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J. Z.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Xia, L.

Yan, L. S.

Yan, Z. J.

Yao, J. P.

Yu, B. M.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. M. Zhou, Z. J. Yan, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Express 19, 11769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Zhou, K. M.

Zhu, T.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X. H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. J. Rao, X. Zeng, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 643 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, and D. Armes, Electron. Lett. 30, 1977 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 31, 1440 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. R. Liao, Y. H. Li, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. P. Wang, H. Bartelta, W. Ecke, R. Willsch, J. Kobelke, M. Kautz, S. Brueckner, and M. Rothhardt, Opt. Commun. 282, 1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

L. Zhao, L. Li, A. Luo, J. Z. Xia, R. H. Qu, and Z. Fang, Optik 113, 464 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and B. M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 4581, 327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the designed PS-FBG in single mode fiber. (b) Optical microscope image of the PS-FBG fabricated by fs laser ablation together with fusion splicing technique.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission (red line) and reflection (blue line) spectra of the FBG fabricated by 193 nm ArF laser through a phase mask. (b) Transmission (red line) and reflection (blue line) spectra of the fabricated PS-FBG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectral evolution of the microchannel PS-FBG subject to different RI liquids. (b) Cyclic feature of the PS-FBG filled by different RI liquids. (c) Linear relationship between the wavelength of the phase-shift peak and RI of the liquid, with a slope of 9.9nm/RIU.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectra the micromachined PS-FBG at different temperatures. (b) Linear relationship between the wavelength of extreme point of the transmission spectrum and the ambient temperature.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectral evolution of the micromachined PS-FBG subject to different axial strains. (b) Linear relationship between the wavelengths of three extreme points of the transmission spectrum and the applied axial strain.

Equations (1)

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εBEAB=εGEAG,

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