Abstract

We report measurements of microwave (RF) generation in the centimeter band accomplished by irradiating a nonlinear KTiOPO4 crystal with a home-made, infrared laser at 1064 nm as a result of optical rectification. The laser delivers pulse trains of duration up to 1 μs. Each train consists of several high-intensity pulses at an adjustable repetition rate of approximately 4.6 GHz. The duration of the generated RF pulses is determined by that of the pulse trains. We have investigated both microwave- and second harmonic generation as a function of the laser intensity and of the orientation of the laser polarization with respect to the crystallographic axes of KTP.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. H. Reshak, I. V. Kityk, and S. Auluck, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

U. Keller, Nature 424, 831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Leader, C. E. Larson, and P. A. Treis, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Neyer and E. Voges, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. J. Bridges and S. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 70 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, D. J.

Arweiler, C. B.

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Auluck, S.

A. H. Reshak, I. V. Kityk, and S. Auluck, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bächtold, W.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bonnin, C.

Boudot, R.

Boulanger, B.

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Braggio, C.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T. J.

T. J. Bridges and S. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cabirol, X.

Carugno, G.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coq, Y. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Féve, J. P.

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Galeazzi, G.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 70 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Graf, S.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, Nature 424, 831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kersaké, Y.

Khan, M. H.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

A. H. Reshak, I. V. Kityk, and S. Auluck, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larson, C. E.

J. C. Leader, C. E. Larson, and P. A. Treis, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leader, J. C.

J. C. Leader, C. E. Larson, and P. A. Treis, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, S.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lengfellner, H.

Lours, M.

Luiten, A. N.

Ma, X. F.

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Marnier, G.

Ménaert, B.

Messineo, G.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

Moser, M.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

A. Neyer and E. Voges, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Niebuhr, K. E.

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Pack, M. V.

Paschotta, R.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pirzio, F.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, M. A.

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reshak, A. H.

A. H. Reshak, I. V. Kityk, and S. Auluck, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruoso, G.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

Shen, H.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Strnad, S. R.

T. J. Bridges and S. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Treis, P. A.

J. C. Leader, C. E. Larson, and P. A. Treis, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Valle, F. D.

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Villeval, P.

Voges, E.

A. Neyer and E. Voges, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, Y.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yao, X. S.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics. Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford, 2007).

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics. Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford, 2007).

Zhang, X. C.

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Graf, H. Sigg, and W. Bächtold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges and S. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Neyer and E. Voges, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 6 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. G. B. Garrett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 70 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. C. Leader, C. E. Larson, and P. A. Treis, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. H. Reshak, I. V. Kityk, and S. Auluck, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Nat. Photonics 4, 117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, Nature 424, 831 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. D. Boyd, T. J. Bridges, M. A. Pollack, and E. H. Turner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Agnesi, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. D. Valle, G. Galeazzi, G. Messineo, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, and G. Ruoso, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 115107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics. Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. L=laser, T=pulse train, λ/2=retarding plate, C=cavity, KTP=crystal, A=antenna, TL=transmission line, S=scope, HS=harmonic separator, F=filter, PD=photodiode, B=bolometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microwave amplitude VRF (left scale) and SH intensity VG (right scale) versus laser intensity I for at fixed θ=115°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microwave signal amplitude VRF versus rotation angle θ of the λ/2 plate for I100MW/cm2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of dVRF/dI on the rotation angle θ of the λ/2 plate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the SH intensity VG on the rotation angle θ of the λ/2 plate for I74MW/cm2.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

VRF=V0+V4cos[4(θγ4)],
P0i=Adijk0E0jωE0kω(i,j,k=x,y,z).
d15=2bd15cos2θsin2θ,d24=2abd24sin22θ,d31=d31cos22θ,d32=d32a2sin22θ,d33=d33b2sin22θ,
VRF=BE02g(θ)=CIg(θ),
g(θ)=gxd15+gyd24+gz(d31+d32+d33).
VG=V0+V8cos[8(θγ8)]+V4cos[4(θγ4)],
VG=Dω4I2q(θ),

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