Abstract

Phase matching in a multilayer AlGaAs waveguide is used to generate mid-IR (7.5–8.5 μm) light through difference frequency generation (DFG) between a 1550 nm pump and 1950 nm signal. This represents the longest wavelength generated through DFG in a 2D waveguide mode in a semiconductor waveguide. It was produced with an efficiency of 1.2×104%/W in a 1 mm long sample. The process is shown to be tunable across >2μm through appropriate tuning of the input pump and signal wavelengths and/or waveguide geometry, and is therefore a viable platform for monolithic, tunable, mid-IR sources.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

V. Petrov, Opt. Mater. 34, 536 (2012).

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, Nat. Photonics 6, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A. C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J. S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2928 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abolghasem, P.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, D. P. Kang, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 35, 2334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, B. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 34, 3656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arjmand, A.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becouarn, L.

Berger, V.

Bijlai, B.

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bijlani, B.

Bijlani, B. J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, D. P. Kang, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 35, 2334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blau, P.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

Bliss, D.

Bravetti, P.

Cho, A. Y.

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fiore, A.

Fujimura, M.

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, Waveguide Nonlinear-Optic Devices (Springer, 2003).

Gerard, B.

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, Nat. Photonics 6, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, D. P. Kang, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 35, 2334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, B. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 34, 3656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Hartl, I.

Helmy, A. S.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, D. P. Kang, B. J. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 35, 2334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bijlani and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 34, 3734 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, P. Abolghasem, B. Bijlani, and A. S. Helmy, Opt. Lett. 34, 3656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, Nat. Photonics 6, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, B. M.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Kang, D. P.

Katz, M.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

Kuo, P. S.

Lallier, E.

Langrock, C.

Levi, O.

Lin, A. C.

Mohr, C.

Nagle, J.

Oron, M. B.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

Pearl, S.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, Opt. Mater. 34, 536 (2012).

Phillips, C. R.

Pinguet, T. J.

Rosencher, E.

Snure, M.

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, Waveguide Nonlinear-Optic Devices (Springer, 2003).

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wagner, S. J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, Nat. Photonics 6, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Younis, U.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Y. Cho, A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 471 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Abolghasem, J. Han, B. Bijlai, A. Arjmand, and A. S. Helmy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. S. Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, Nat. Photonics 6, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Petrov, Opt. Mater. 34, 536 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C-1 (2012).

Other (1)

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, Waveguide Nonlinear-Optic Devices (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic and description of the waveguide under test and (b) simulated mode field profiles of the three interacting modes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Pump tuning curve: variation of idler power Pi as input pump wavelength λp is varied across its 1531–1563.5 nm tuning range for a constant signal wavelength λs=1949.4nm. Signal tuning curves: variation of Pi as input signal wavelength λs is varied across its 1908.5–1994 nm tuning range for a constant pump wavelength of (b) λp=1563.5nm and (c) λp=1552.5nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Signal tuning curve for three waveguide lengths L; Inset 1, estimated efficiency η (%/W) versus L; Inset 2, phase-matched signal bandwidth versus L (b) Pi versus input pump power Pp. (c) Pi versus input signal power Ps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Phase-matched curve simulated for interaction between ridge modes and slab modes of the waveguide (lines) and measured points for peak (1) and (2); (b) simulated phase-matched solution Δβ=0 [see Eq. (1)] for λs=1950nm for both ridge and slab modes, denoting generated wavelengths λi.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Signal power tuning curve of two waveguide geometries; (b) simulated phase-matched curves for varied etch depth d; (c) simulated phase-matched curve for fixed pump and varied signal wavelength and etch depth; (d) simulated phase-matched curve for fixed signal and varied pump wavelength and d.

Equations (1)

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Δβ=2π(neffp(λp)λpneffs(λs)λsneffi(λi)λi)=0,

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