Abstract

We present a technique for standoff trace chemical sensing that is based on the dependence of excited electronic state lifetimes on the amount of internal vibrational energy. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using N,N-dimethylisopropylamine (DMIPA). Time-resolved measurements show that the lifetime of the S1 state in DMIPA exponentially decreases with the amount of vibrational energy. This property is employed to acquire molecular spectral signatures. Two laser pulses are used: one ionizes the molecule through the S1 state; the other alters the S1 state lifetime by depositing energy into vibrations. Reduction of the S1 state lifetime decreases ionization efficiency that is observed by probing the laser-induced plasma with microwave radiation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1999).
  2. D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).
  4. M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Quack and F. Merkt, Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy (Wiley2011), pp. 1911–1941.
  7. W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-L. Dai and R. W. Field, Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping (World Scientific, 1995).
  10. D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. K. Kulkarni and J. E. Kenny, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4441 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Kuhlman, The Non-Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion. An Experimental and Theoretical Approach (Springer, 2013).
  15. J. L. Gosselin and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 4899 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).
  17. F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 134303 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Rudakov and Z. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 145 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. NIST Web book http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ .
  25. Here and below 1 sigma are given for the error bars.
  26. In addition to the vibrational energy of the molecules in the beam.
  27. Arkema Inc. http://www.arkema-inc.com/tds/1461.pdf .
  28. M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. N. Shneider and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 134303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and Z. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

2007 (2)

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. L. Gosselin and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 4899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kulkarni and J. E. Kenny, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4441 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bayes, B. A.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blaum, K.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Bronner, W.

W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bushaw, B. A.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Cardoza, J. D.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

Carpenter, S. D.

C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.-L.

H.-L. Dai and R. W. Field, Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping (World Scientific, 1995).

De Lucia, F. C.

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deb, S.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diel, S.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Dogariu, A.

Ebata, T.

M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Field, R. W.

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-L. Dai and R. W. Field, Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping (World Scientific, 1995).

Freed, K. F.

D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gelbart, W.

D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Geppert, Ch.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Gosselin, J. L.

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gosselin and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 4899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guest, J. A.

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, N.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

Heller, D. F.

D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ho, W. C.

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B. A.

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R.

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kakinuma, T.

T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kenny, J. E.

S. K. Kulkarni and J. E. Kenny, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4441 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klimcak, C. M.

D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlman, S.

S. Kuhlman, The Non-Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion. An Experimental and Theoretical Approach (Springer, 2013).

Kulkarni, S. K.

S. K. Kulkarni and J. E. Kenny, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4441 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Merkt, F.

M. Quack and F. Merkt, Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy (Wiley2011), pp. 1911–1941.

Mikami, N.

M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu and R. B. Miles, Appl. Opt. 50, A68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minitti, M. P.

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Nahler, A.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Novak, F. A.

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Oesterlin, P.

W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oka, T.

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. J.

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pursell, C. J.

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quack, M.

M. Quack and F. Merkt, Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy (Wiley2011), pp. 1911–1941.

Rice, S.

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rudakov, F.

F. Rudakov and Z. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 134303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudakov, F. M.

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schellhorn, M.

W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schick, C. P.

C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1999).

Shneider, M. N.

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silva, M.

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sølling, T. I.

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, K.

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, E. A.

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thantu, N.

B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautmann, N.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Weber, P. M.

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 134303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gosselin and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 4899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weliky, D. P.

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, K.

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

Wessel, J. E.

D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

F. Rudakov and Z. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

M. Ito, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Silva, R. Jongma, R. W. Field, and A. M. Wodtke, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Bronner, P. Oesterlin, and M. Schellhorn, Appl. Phys. B 34, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kakinuma, M. Fujii, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

P. Muller, B. A. Bushaw, K. Blaum, S. Diel, Ch. Geppert, A. Nahler, N. Trautmann, and K. Wendt, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 370, 508 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. N. Shneider, Z. Zhang, and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shneider and R. B. Miles, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (7)

B. Kim, N. Thantu, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Ho, C. J. Pursell, D. P. Weliky, K. Takagi, and T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 87 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Jacobson, J. A. Guest, F. A. Novak, and S. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kulkarni and J. E. Kenny, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4441 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Heller, K. F. Freed, and W. Gelbart, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2309 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. Rudakov and P. M. Weber, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 134303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. D. Cardoza, F. M. Rudakov, N. Hansen, and P. M. Weber, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 65, 15 (2008).

J. Phys. Chem. A (4)

J. L. Gosselin, M. P. Minitti, F. M. Rudakov, T. I. Sølling, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 4251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Deb, B. A. Bayes, M. P. Minitti, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 1804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Schick, S. D. Carpenter, and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10470 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gosselin and P. M. Weber, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 4899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Phillips, E. A. Tanner, F. C. De Lucia, and H. O. Everitt, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. E. Cooper, C. M. Klimcak, and J. E. Wessel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 324 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. N. Shneider, and R. B. Miles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

NIST Web book http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ .

Here and below 1 sigma are given for the error bars.

In addition to the vibrational energy of the molecules in the beam.

Arkema Inc. http://www.arkema-inc.com/tds/1461.pdf .

S. Kuhlman, The Non-Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion. An Experimental and Theoretical Approach (Springer, 2013).

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1999).

M. Quack and F. Merkt, Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy (Wiley2011), pp. 1911–1941.

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