Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a multifrequency radio frequency (RF) spectrum estimation technology. With photonic assistance, a multifrequency RF signal ranging from 0 to 1 GHz is highly spectrally compressed and sensed using a single analog-to-digital converter with analog bandwidth of 42.6 MHz. By calculating the cross correlation of pseudo random binary sequence and the encoded signal, up to 40 RF tones are precisely recognized without large computational load. The employment of optical mixing decreased the cost and increased the performance compared to its electrical counterpart. The theory and performance are also discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Nguyen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 249.
  4. W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.
  6. J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Mishali and Y. Eldar, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 375 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Chi, Y. Mei, Y. Chen, D. Wang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and X. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 37, 4636 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Nicholes and F. Bucholz, Opt. Express 19, 7339 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.
  13. G. C. Valley, G. A. Sefler, and T. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 37, 4675 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

J. M. Nicholes and F. Bucholz, Opt. Express 19, 7339 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mishali and Y. Eldar, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Nguyen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Baraniuk, R. G.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baron, D.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Brock, J. C.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bucholz, F.

Bui, L. A.

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chi, H.

Clark, T. R.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Dai, Y.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

Davis, R. L.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Duarte, M.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Duarte, M. F.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edvell, L. G.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 249.

Eldar, Y.

M. Mishali and Y. Eldar, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emami, H.

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Englund, M. A.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 249.

Gu, Y.

H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. B.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 249.

Ji, Y.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

Jin, X.

Jung, T. J.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirolos, S.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Laska, J.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Laska, J. N.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L. J.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

Lodenkamper, R.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucarelli, D. G.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Massoud, Y.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

McKenna, T. P.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Mei, Y.

Mishali, M.

M. Mishali and Y. Eldar, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nan, H.

H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanzer, J. A.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Nguyen, L.

L. Nguyen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholes, J. M.

Ragheb, T.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Romberg, J. K.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarkhosh, N.

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sefler, G. A.

Sharp, M. D.

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

Shaw, T. J.

Tropp, J. A.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Wakin, M.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

Wang, D.

Wang, W.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

Yan, L.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

Zhang, H.

H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zheng, S.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. (1)

M. Mishali and Y. Eldar, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 4, 375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Nan, Y. Gu, and H. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, L. A. Bui, and A. Mitchell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nguyen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 642 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 520 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

W. Wang, R. L. Davis, T. J. Jung, R. Lodenkamper, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

T. P. McKenna, M. D. Sharp, D. G. Lucarelli, J. A. Nanzer, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3D.1.

L. Yan, Y. Dai, K. Xu, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2012), p. 315.

S. Kirolos, J. Laska, M. Wakin, M. Duarte, D. Baron, T. Ragheb, Y. Massoud, and R. Baraniuk, in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Design, Applications, Integration and Software (IEEE, 2006), p. 71.

D. B. Hunter, L. G. Edvell, and M. A. Englund, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2005), p. 249.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System configuration of the proposed scheme. Red line: optical fibers. Black dashed line: electronic cables.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle illustrated by inputting one RF tone. (a) The spectrum of a single tone. (b) The spectrum of PRBS. denotes convolution. (c) The spectrum of the encoded signal. The dashed green line indicates the frequency response of the LPF. (d) The enlargement of the LPF’s passband. The dashed red line denotes the case of inputting another RF tone.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results. (a) Self-correlation function of p(f). (b) Input and recovered spectrum of a RF signal with 20 tones, where two tones are very far and three tones are very close (which have enlargement followed). (c) Input and recovered spectrum of a RF signal with 40 tones ranging from 0.1 to 1 GHz.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X(f)=0BADCP(ff0)×P*(f+f)df={0BADC|P(ff0)|2dfP0BADCf=f0N(f)otherwise,

Metrics