Abstract

We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).
  2. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
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  6. B. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, L. Tang, W. D. Ramdas, J. R. Vingerling, N. M. Jansonius, K. Lee, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2403 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 2nd ed. (Slack, 2004).
  8. Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).
  9. A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K.-H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, Opt. Express 19, 12156 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, and P. M. Petersen, Opt. Express 17, 6532 (2009).
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  11. A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).
  13. B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).
  14. B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 17, 7 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. ICNIRP, “Revision of the Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation of Wavelengths between 400 nm and 1.4 μm,” 2000.

2012 (1)

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

2009 (3)

2007 (1)

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abràmoff, M. D.

Andersen, P. E.

Antony, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bridgford, T.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Choi, S.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Danis, R. P.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Drexler, W.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 17, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elsner, A. E.

Erbert, G.

Esmaeelpour, M.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

Ferguson, R. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 2nd ed. (Slack, 2004).

Fuller, A. R.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Gangaputra, S.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Garvin, M. K.

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, B.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Hammer, D. X.

Hasler, K.-H.

Hermann, B.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 17, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, B.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 17, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Huber, R.

Jansonius, N. M.

Jensen, O. B.

Kajic, V.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

Kapoor, K.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein, B. E. K.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Klein, R.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Klein, T.

Kwon, Y. H.

Le, T.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. E.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Magill, J. C.

Matz, G.

Meuer, S. M.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Narkar, A. R.

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

North, R. V.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

Petersen, P. M.

Považay, B.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 17, 7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 2nd ed. (Slack, 2004).

Ramdas, W. D.

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 2nd ed. (Slack, 2004).

Sheen, N. J. L.

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

Simpson, E.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

Sonka, M.

Stingl, A.

Sumpf, B.

Tang, L.

Unterhuber, A.

Vingerling, J. R.

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

White, M. A.

Wieser, W.

Wiley, D. F.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Zawadzki, R. J.

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics (1)

A. R. Fuller, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, J. S. Werner, and B. Hamann, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics 13, 1719 (2007).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

Y. Huang, S. Gangaputra, K. E. Lee, A. R. Narkar, R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. M. Meuer, and R. P. Danis, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2133 (2012).

M. Esmaeelpour, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, K. Kapoor, N. J. L. Sheen, R. V. North, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5260 (2010).

B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajic, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1856 (2009).

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Other (3)

ICNIRP, “Revision of the Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation of Wavelengths between 400 nm and 1.4 μm,” 2000.

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 2nd ed. (Slack, 2004).

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simultaneous dual wavelength, eye-tracked OCT. Fixation light (FIX) and scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) control and correct eye motions via control hardware (CTRL). The original 880 nm SLD is paired with an amplified spontaneous emission source (ASE) at 1060 nm. The detection via two spectrometers (SPECT) and a Camera Link acquisition system (ACQ) is processed (PROC) in real time and visualized on a display (DISP).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of (a) multiple sampled and tracked UHR, (b) standard resolution OCT at 800/880nm with (c) simultaneously acquired standard, and (d) high resolution 1060 nm OCT. (e) Power spectral density of applied lasers, corrected for double passing the eye (gray): INTEGRAL core (green, solid), DDPSSL (blue, dotted), SLD (black, dashed), ASE source (magenta, dotted), and multiplexed SLD (red, solid) for imaging in water transparency window around 1060 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tomograms utilizing the retracking function of the device with (a) internal light source (100 frames) compared with (b) DDSSL (50 frames) and (c) INTEGRAL core (20 frames). Tomograms are displayed in a 13 ratio (horizontal:vertical) for better visualization of the layered structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tomograms (13 ratio) of the same subject acquired at the same location utilizing the retracking function. Averaged tomograms acquired with (a) ASE and (b) SLD. (c) and (d) magnification of the demarcated regions in (a) and (b) unveil the enhanced level of detail obtained by improved registration and increased resolution in the retina and choroid, despite the lower number of averaged frames and the increased granularity caused by remaining speckle.

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