Abstract

The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of a single-layer coating at the nanosecond (ns) regime is obviously lower than an uncoated substrate or a high reflectivity coating coated by the same material. To elucidate this phenomenon, we demonstrate the LIDT of three types of samples at 355 nm with 8 ns. High absorption defects are found at the film–substrate interface by comparing their LIDTs and damage morphologies. These defects originate from the substrate and appear during the coating process. Simulation results show that these defects, coupled to the coating, are mainly responsible for decreasing the damage threshold.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shan, H. He, C. Wei, Y. Wang, and Y. Zhao, Chin. Opt. Lett. 9, 103101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Dijon, G. Ravel, and B. Andre, Proc. SPIE 3578, 398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1985 (2)

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akhouayri, H.

Amra, C.

Andre, B.

J. Dijon, G. Ravel, and B. Andre, Proc. SPIE 3578, 398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, 1998).

Bittle, W.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, G. Ravel, and B. Andre, Proc. SPIE 3578, 398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duchateau, G.

Dyan, A.

Emmert, L.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Feit, M. D.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

Fujimura, H.

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

Gallais, L.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, Appl. Opt. 41, 3156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Gao, Y.

Grèzes-Besset, C.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

He, H.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, 1998).

Hu, G.

X. Liu, Y. Zhao, Y. Gao, D. Li, G. Hu, M. Zhu, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Appl. Opt. 52, 2194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, J.

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

Jensen, L.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, S. Schrameyer, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, Opt. Lett. 37, 4329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jupé, M.

Kato, Y.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krol, H.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kupinski, P.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lange, M. R.

M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Zhao, Y. Gao, D. Li, G. Hu, M. Zhu, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, Appl. Opt. 52, 2194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mclver, J. K.

M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mende, M.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, S. Schrameyer, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, Opt. Lett. 37, 4329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, Appl. Opt. 41, 3156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, P. E.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, R. M.

Oliver, J. B.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Otani, M.

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

Papernov, S.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ravel, G.

J. Dijon, G. Ravel, and B. Andre, Proc. SPIE 3578, 398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, S. Schrameyer, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, Opt. Lett. 37, 4329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schrameyer, S.

Shan, H.

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, H. Shan, K. Yi, and J. Shao, Chin. J. Lasers 39, 803004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Y.

Shang, G.

Shao, J.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tait, A.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. W.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, Y.

Weber, M.

M. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

Wei, C.

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, H. Shan, K. Yi, and J. Shao, Chin. J. Lasers 39, 803004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K.

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, H. Shan, K. Yi, and J. Shao, Chin. J. Lasers 39, 803004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wei, J. Shao, H. He, K. Yi, and Z. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 3376 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

Zhai, L.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, M.

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, and C. Yamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 911 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

G. Liu, M. Zhou, G. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

M. Yang, Y. Zhao, H. Shan, K. Yi, and J. Shao, Chin. J. Lasers 39, 803004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, and P. E. Nielsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Otani, H. Fujimura, J. Ishikura, and K. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6350 (2004).

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grèzes-Besset, J. Natoli, and M. Commandré, Opt. Commun. 256, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, G. Ravel, and B. Andre, Proc. SPIE 3578, 398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. R. Lange, J. K. Mclver, and A. H. Guenther, Thin Solid Films 125, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

“Optical components for fire control instruments; general specification governing the manufacture, assembly, and inspection of,” Military Specification (1963).

International Organization of Standardization, “Lasers and laser-related equipment—Determination of laser-induced damage threshold of optical surfaces—Part 1: 1-on-1 test,” (2000).

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, 1998).

M. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmittance of the HR coating (reflectance >99%) and the special coating (reflectance 57%).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental and simulated results of the laser-induced damage in three types of samples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Damage morphologies of the (a) HR coating and (b) special coating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electromagnetic field distribution compared with the damage depth of (a) HR coating and (b) special coating. The dots represent the bottom of the damage craters.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Morphologies (a) before and (b) after annealing using AFM. Numerous small protuberances are formed during annealing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Relationship of defect radius with temperature and LIDT.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulation Results of Defects in Three Types of Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of the Defect (CeO2) [23] and the Host Material (Al2O3) [24]

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iabs=αn|E/Ein|2Imeasured,
T=T0(1e4Dta2),
Tregion=i=1NaTiriri>a,Tregionmax(Ti),

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