Abstract

A microwave photonic filter with the highest reported quality factor (Q) value of 4895.31 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using two cascaded infinite impulse response (IIR) filters. Each IIR filter comprises both optical and electronic signals in a feedback loop and thus the loop length can be reduced without the need to consider the light coherence length. The Vernier effect enables a significant improvement of the free spectral ranges and Q values of the cascaded filter. The Q value of the proposed microwave photonic filter can be changed when the loop lengths of two cascaded filters are carefully adjusted. In addition, for a fixed Q, the frequency response of the filter can also be tuned by adjusting the bias of the Mach–Zehnder modulator in each loop.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

L. Cheng and S. Aditya, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Popov, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Gunnarsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. You and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 1304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aditya, S.

L. Cheng and S. Aditya, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. H. W.

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng and S. Aditya, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corral, J. L.

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

M. Popov, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Gunnarsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Olcina, R.

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gasulla, I.

Gunnarsson, O.

M. Popov, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Gunnarsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

Hunter, D. B.

D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lloret, J.

Manzanedo, M. D.

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minasian, R. A.

X. Yi and R. A. Minasian, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. You and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 1304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, M.

M. Popov, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Gunnarsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sancho, J.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

Vidal, B.

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

Xu, E.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. P.

Yi, X.

You, N.

N. You and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 1304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, L.

Electron. Lett.

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and R. Garcia-Olcina, Electron. Lett. 41, 1133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 11, 217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Mora, S. Sales, M. D. Manzanedo, R. Garcia-Olcina, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Popov, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and O. Gunnarsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, and J. Marti, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Cheng and S. Aditya, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech.

D. B. Hunter and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. You and R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 1304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the proposed IIR filter with cascaded optical-electrical feedback loops.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Frequency response of the IIR filters with one loop (Loop 1, the one with smaller FSR; Loop 2, the one with larger FSR). (b) Frequency response of the IIR filter with two cascaded loops.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frequency response at different FSRs and Q values. (a) Case II. (b) Case III. (Case I is shown in Fig. 2. For the single-loop-filter frequency response: Loop 1, the one with smaller FSR; Loop 2, the one with larger FSR.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency response with Q of 3738.98 in the case of (a) MZM1: 3Vpi/2, MZM2: Vpi/2; (b) MZM1: 3Vpi/2, MZM2: 3Vpi/2; (c) MZM1: Vpi/2, MZM2: 3Vpi/2. [The case of “MZM1: Vpi/2, MZM2: Vpi/2” is shown in Fig. 3(a). For the single-loop-filter frequency response: Loop 1, the one with smaller FSR; Loop 2, the one with larger FSR.]

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Parameters of the Individual Filters (Loop 1 & Loop 2) and the Cascaded Filter

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