Abstract

We present an experimental observation of the output responses of a Nd:YAG microchip laser with an anisotropic external cavity under weak optical feedback. The feedback mirror is stationary during the experiments. A pair of acousto-optic modulators is used to produce a frequency shift in the feedback light with respect to the initial light. The laser output is a beat signal with 40 kHz modulation frequency and is separated into two orthogonal directions by a Wollaston prism. Phase differences between the two intensity curves are observed as the laser works in two orthogonal modes, and vary with the external birefringence element and the pump power. Theoretical analyses are given, and the simulated results are consistent with the experimental phenomena.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. X. Chen, S. L. Zhang, and X. W. Long, Opt. Lett. 37, 2433 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9200 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Chen, S. L. Zhang, and X. W. Long, Opt. Lett. 37, 2433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sudo, T. Ohtomo, Y. Takahashi, T. Oishi, and K. Otsuka, Appl. Opt. 48, 4049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

E. Lacot and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 053824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. H. Loh, Y. Ozeki, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abe, K.

Asakawa, Y.

Boyle, W. J. O.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. X.

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Chen, S. L. Zhang, and X. W. Long, Opt. Lett. 37, 2433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Day, R.

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fei, L. G.

Fujita, T.

T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

Grattan, K. T. V.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hugon, O.

E. Lacot and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 053824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, R.

Ko, J. Y.

Lacot, E.

E. Lacot and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 053824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wan, D. Li, and S. L. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 32, 367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liu, G.

Liu, W. X.

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

W. H. Loh, Y. Ozeki, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Long, X. W.

W. X. Chen, S. L. Zhang, and X. W. Long, Opt. Lett. 37, 2433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuhashi, Y.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, T.

Oishi, T.

Otsuka, K.

Ozeki, Y.

W. H. Loh, Y. Ozeki, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z.

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schremer, A.

T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

Takahashi, Y.

Tan, Y. D.

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Tan and S. L. Zhang, Appl. Opt. 46, 6064 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

W. H. Loh, Y. Ozeki, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X. J.

Wang, W. M.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Z.

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z. L.

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. L.

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Chen, S. L. Zhang, and X. W. Long, Opt. Lett. 37, 2433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Tan and S. L. Zhang, Appl. Opt. 46, 6064 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wan, D. Li, and S. L. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 32, 367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Fei, S. L. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, Opt. Express 13, 3117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, S. L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, Appl. Opt. 42, 6636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. Q.

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L. F.

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, Z. Q. Zhao, and Z. L. Zeng, Appl. Phys. B 106, 657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. H. Loh, Y. Ozeki, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujita, A. Schremer, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

L. F. Zhou, B. Zhang, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Tan, and W. X. Liu, Chin. Phys. B 18, 1141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

Z. Ren, D. Li, X. Wan, and S. Zhang, Laser Phys. 18, 939 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

W. X. Chen, X. W. Long, S. L. Zhang, and G. Z. Xiao, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

E. Lacot, R. Day, and F. Stoeckel, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Lacot and O. Hugon, Phys. Rev. A 70, 053824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output modes of the lasers. (a) Single mode. (b) Two modes. (c) and (d) Orthogonally polarized two modes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results. (a) In phase. (b)–(d) Phase difference appears. (e) Nearly 90° phase difference. (f) Nearly phase inversion.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the orientations of optic axes and laser polarization directions. (a) No rotation. (b) Relative rotation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated results. (a) In phase. (b)–(d) Phase difference appears. (e) Nearly 90° phase difference. (f) Nearly phase inversion.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eo=(E1s)Fsinβ+(E1f)Fcosβ+(E2s)Fsinβ+(E2f)Fcosβ,
Ee=(E1s)Fcosβ+(E1f)Fsinβ+(E2s)Fcosβ+(E2f)Fsinβ,
(E1s)F=E1ms[1+ηexp(j4πν1Lsc)exp(jω0t)]sin(α+β),
(E1f)F=E1mf[1+ηexp(j4πν1Lfc)exp(jω0t)]cos(α+β),
(E2s)F=E2ms[1+ηexp(j4πν2Lsc)exp(jω0t)]cos(α+β),
(E2f)F=E2mf[1+ηexp(j4πν2Lfc)exp(jω0t)]sin(α+β),
η=T2r3ξ/r2,
E1ms(f)=r1r2exp(j4πν1nlc+2g1s(f)l)E1,
E2ms(f)=r1r2exp(j4πν2nlc+2g2s(f)l)E2,
g1(2)f=12l[ln(r1r2)+ηcos2πLfλ],
g1(2)s=12l[ln(r1r2)+ηcos(4πLfλ+2δ)],
Io=Eo·Eo*,
Ie=Ee·Ee*.

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