Abstract

We combine the concepts of dip-in and stimulated-emission-depletion-inspired optical lithography for the first time to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures for photonics. For depletion of the photoinitiator ITX we employ a fiber-coupled laser diode at 639 nm wavelength. To demonstrate the performance of the experimental setup, we have fabricated 3D chiral layer-by-layer twisted woodpile structures with a lattice constant reduced by more than a factor of 2 compared to earlier results. The fabricated chiral photonic crystals serve as dual-band polarizers for circular polarization at visible and telecom wavelengths. Spectroscopic measurements agree well with scattering-matrix calculations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  4. J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, Opt. Express 12, 5221 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (4)

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wollhofen, J. Katzmann, C. Hrelescu, J. Jacak, and T. A. Klar, Opt. Express 21, 10831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

E. H. Waller, M. Renner, and G. von Freymann, Opt. Express 20, 24949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 32, 2547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2002 (2)

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. A. Klar and S. W. Hell, Opt. Lett. 24, 954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Billy, L.

Bowman, C. N.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Brandi, F.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bückmann, T.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B.

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dallari, W.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diaspro, A.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eberl, C.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Essig, S.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. A.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fazzi, D.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frlich, A.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, N. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grancini, G.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harke, B.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

Hrelescu, C.

Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacak, J.

John, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kadic, M.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, J.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Katzmann, J.

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennerknecht, T.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

Kowalski, B. A.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ledermann, A.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. C. W.

J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, R. R.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muljarov, E. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ovsianikov, A.

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

Pérez-Willard, F.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrozza, A.

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Renner, M.

Scott, T. F.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seet, K. K.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Staude, I.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, N.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

Sullivan, A. C.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 32, 2547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van de Nes, A. S.

von Freymann, G.

E. H. Waller, M. Renner, and G. von Freymann, Opt. Express 20, 24949 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 32, 2547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waller, E. H.

Wegener, M.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 32, 2547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wollhofen, R.

Wong, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, A. L.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (5)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 22, 3578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza, and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater. 25, 904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bückmann, N. Stenger, M. Kadic, J. Kaschke, A. Frlich, T. Kennerknecht, C. Eberl, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 24, 2710 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 22 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, Nat. Commun. 4, 2061 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, Science 324, 910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, Science 324, 913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

e.g., see www.nanoscribe.de .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Distribution of the time-averaged electric energy density at different focal depths h for the bottle-beam focus at 639 nm wavelength and the Gaussian focus at 780 nm wavelength, respectively. The defocus is always given with respect to the anticipated focal plane, calculated for an ideal immersion system (ni=1.518 and NA=1.3) and a slightly index-mismatched resist (n780=1.479 and n639=1.483).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the dip-in depletion DLW setup equipped with a 80 fs excitation laser centered at 780 nm wavelength and a power level of 10.6 mW at the aperture of the objective lens (NA=1.3). A fiber-coupled diode laser at 639 nm wavelength is mounted to the eyepiece of the microscope and sent through a circular phase plate. The diode delivers a cw power of 32.2 mW at the objective aperture. Measurements of the excitation and depletion focus are compared with the theory of an ideal objective and phase mask.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Reflection-mode light microscope picture of fabricated chiral twisted woodpile structures with the same nominal parameters as in Fig. 5 but with only 15 layers. Depletion power and excitation power are varied to find the optimal parameters. (b) Absolute excitation power versus depletion power for structures with equal colors indicated in (a) with (*).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Blueprint of the chiral layer-by-layer photonic-crystal structure. Adjacent layers are twisted by 120°; i.e., three layers are a left-handed helical pitch. On the other hand, a twist by 60° can be interpreted as a pitch of opposite handedness; i.e., six layers are a right-handed helical pitch. (b) Scattering-matrix calculations of the blueprint shown in (a). The red (blue) curve corresponds to transmittance of right-handed (left-handed) light if right-handed (left-handed) light is impinging. The red (blue) dashed curve corresponds to transmittance of left-handed (right-handed) light if right-handed (left-handed) light is impinging. The geometrical parameters for the calculations are a=525nm, c=495nm, 2rx=120nm, voxel aspect ratio 2.4, and 102 layers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Oblique-angle (54°) electron micrographs of chiral layer-by-layer photonic-crystal structure cut by focus-ion-beam milling reveal the geometrical parameters: a=525nm, c=495nm, 2rx=120nm, voxel aspect ratio 2.4, and 102 layers. (b) Polarization-sensitive measurements of the structure shown in (a) corresponding to the theory shown in Fig. 3(b).

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