Abstract

A compact, low-loss, optical power splitter based on inverse tapers is proposed and fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator platform. High efficiency mode evolution between the fundamental mode of the input waveguide and the super mode of the output waveguides is realized using optimized tapers. A 1×4 splitter with insertion loss lower than 0.4 dB and uniformity better than 0.68 dB in a wavelength range from 1510 to 1550 nm are demonstrated within a footprint of only 75μm2. These properties are very promising for ultrahigh density photonic integration applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 21, 1310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt, I. H. Giden, and D. S. Citrin, Opt. Express 19, 26827 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2005

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. W.

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

Coldren, L. A.

Dai, D.

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. H.

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

Fan, Z. C.

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Galland, C.

Gan, F.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giden, I. H.

He, S.

D. Dai and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 21595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hosseini, A.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kakitsuka, T.

Kitayama, K.

Kristensen, M.

Kruger, A. C.

Kurt, H.

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Kwong, D. N.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Malureanu, R.

Matsuo, S.

Ou, H. Y.

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pang, A.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

Peucheret, C.

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

Spencer, D. T.

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Subbaraman, H.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. H.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. M.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. B.

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Tomofuji, S.

Wang, X.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. T.

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J. S.

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Yu, J. Z.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, Y. D.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X. J.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 21, 1310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

C. Zhang, J. H. Sun, X. Xiao, W. M. Sun, X. J. Zhang, T. Chu, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, A. Pang, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2272 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. H. Ding, H. Y. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 648 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Spencer, D. Dai, Y. B. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Z. T. Wang, Z. C. Fan, J. S. Xia, S. W. Chen, and J. Z. Yu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the inverse tapers-based 1×4 optical power splitter. The four output ports are P1, P2, P3, and P4. Due to the symmetry of the structure, P1 has the same parameters as P4, and P2 has the same parameters as P3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 3D view of the optical power splitter, (d) and (e) are the simulated electric field distribution of (b) and (c), respectively. (f) and (g) show the process of mode transformation in (d) and (e).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated splitting ratio of the optimized 1×4 power splitter. Since the structure is symmetric, only the results of port 1 and 2 are given. (b) The calculated insertion loss of the power splitter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) AFM and (b) SEM images of the fabricated power splitter. (c) Test structure cascaded by 1×4 power splitters in a six-stage configuration. (d) Results for the cascaded power splitters. Enlarged views of the spectrum in (d) are shown in (e) and (f), corresponding to the loss figure and power uniformity, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Optimized 1×4 Power Splitter

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Linsertion=N×(6+Eelement),
UF=6×10Log10PmaxPmin=6×UFelement,

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