Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of the effect of parallel-to-interface-refraction (PIR) in a three-dimensional, simple-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic-crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (λ). The consequence is a longer path length of light in the medium and an improved light absorption beyond the Lambertian limit. As an illustration of the effect, we show near-unity total absorption (98%) in λ=520620nm and an average absorption of 94% over λ=400700nm for our α-Si:H photonic-crystal sample of an equivalent bulk thickness of t˜=450nm. Furthermore, we have achieved an ultra-wide angular acceptance of light over θ=0°80°. This demonstration opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad λs and wide angles.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

2012

G. Demésy and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Deinega and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bozzola and L. C. Andreani, Opt. Express 20, A224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kageyama, M. Akagawa, and H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 83, 195205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, Opt. Express 17, 14312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 23825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 15, 16986 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

2006

2005

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1982

1961

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

Akagawa, M.

S. Kageyama, M. Akagawa, and H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 83, 195205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

Atwater, H. A.

Bermel, P.

Biswas, R.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozzola, M. L.

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. F.

Chen, J. I. L.

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 23825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daif, O. E.

Deinega, A.

A. Deinega and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Demésy, G.

G. Demésy and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

Duan, X.

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

El-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

Fave, A.

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

Fleming, J. G.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

S. Kageyama, M. Akagawa, and H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 83, 195205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuyuki, T.

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gee, J. M.

J. M. Gee, in 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2002), p. 150.

Hatayama, T.

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hietala, V. M.

Ho, K. M.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hua, B.

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

Hung, Y. J.

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

G. Demésy and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Deinega and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 23825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E. D.

Kageyama, S.

S. Kageyama, M. Akagawa, and H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 83, 195205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Kim, Y. S.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, M.-L.

Lee, K. Y.

Lee, S. L.

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemiti, M.

Letartre, X.

Leung, S.

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

Li, H. B. T.

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

Lin, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, V. M. Hietala, L. Wang, and E. D. Jones, Opt. Lett. 21, 1771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. D.

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Luo, C.

Mallick, S. B.

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

Notomi, M.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Peumans, P.

Planck, M.

M. Planck, The Theory of Heat Radiation (Dover, 1912).

Polman, A.

Poxson, D. J.

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

Schubert, E. F.

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Seassal, C.

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Suezaki, T.

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B. J.

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

Viktorovitch, P.

Walters, R. J.

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

Yu, E. T.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Suezaki, J. I. L. Chen, T. Hatayama, T. Fuyuki, and G. A. Ozin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 242102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Demésy and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074326 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Deinega and S. John, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 074327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc Am. B

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, R. Lin, M. M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, J. Opt. Soc Am. B 18, 32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec.

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, J. Sel. Top. Quan. Elec. 17, 869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, Nano Lett. 9, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, B. Hua, S. Leung, X. Duan, and Z. Fan, Nano Lett. 7, 2725 (2013).

Nat. Photonics

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Nature

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, Nature 417, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. A 78, 23825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Kageyama, M. Akagawa, and H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 83, 195205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Gee, in 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2002), p. 150.

M. Planck, The Theory of Heat Radiation (Dover, 1912).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Anomalous light refraction in a 3D photonic-crystal. (a) Schematic of a simple-cubic lattice structure. The direction of light refraction is indicated as red arrows. (b) SEM image of the fabricated sample with a lattice constant of a=350nm. (c) The corresponding first Brillouin zone in k-space. (d) The calculated dispersion, frequency versus wave vector, of the lattice. The green square box corresponds to wavelengths of λ450800nm. (e) An iso-frequency plot of band-3. It has a square-like contour, allowing light refraction PIR. The red arrows indicate the flow of energy. (f) An iso-frequency plot of band-27, which is more complicated but still exhibits a square-like contour.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured and computed total transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra. (a) The measured spectra for a 600 nm thick α-Si:H thin film, showing an absorption of A60% in 400nmλ580nm. In the gray region, the data shows a weak absorption (A30%) and also resonant oscillations in both the transmission and reflection spectra. (b) The a=350nm photonic-crystal sample shows a higher absorption of A85% in 400nmλ630nm. (c) The a=450nm photonic-crystal shows an even higher absorption of A90% in 400nmλ640nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Enhancement factor and broadband absorption. (a) Enhancement of absorption of the 4L simple-cubic samples over the 600 nm α-Si:H thin film. The dotted line represents the maximum enhancement needed to reach 100% absorption. (b) Total absorption/(1-R) plot, showing that the absorption edge (the vertical arrows) is systematically shifted to longer λs as the lattice constant is increased. The light-gray and dark-gray dotted lines are the Lambertian limits, calculated using our measured optical constants and those taken from the literature, respectively. (c) Plot of optical constants measured from α-Si:H thin film (light-gray dots) and those taken from the literature (dark-gray dots).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near-unity absorption and broad acceptance angle. (a) Comparison of measured absorption data taken from a=350 and 450 nm samples, a=450nm sample with an Al reflector and also a=450nm sample with an Al-reflector and antireflection coating. (b) 3D plot of the measured absorption versus λ and incident angle (θ) for a 4L simple-cubic photonic-crystal sample.

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