Abstract

A modified photoconductive receiver significantly improves the performance of photomixing-based continuous wave (cw) THz systems driven at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1.5 μm. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio of 105 dB at 100 GHz and 70 dB at 1 THz, both for an integration time of 200 ms, are to our knowledge the highest numbers reported in literature for any optoelectronic cw THz system, including classical setups operating at 800 nm. The developed receiver allows for combining low cost and high performance in one system for the first time to our knowledge.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, Y. A. Leem, H.-C. Ryu, C. W. Lee, D. Lee, M. Y. Jeon, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, Opt. Express 19, 15397 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).
  9. D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).
  10. A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, Y. A. Leem, H.-C. Ryu, C. W. Lee, D. Lee, M. Y. Jeon, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, Opt. Express 19, 15397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

2010 (2)

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ajito, K.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benker, N.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Böttcher, J.

Cámara Mayorga, I.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delagnes, J. C.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deninger, A.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellrich, F.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, L.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuess, H.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukada, Y.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, T.

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

Grüninger, M.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Güsten, R.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

Hartnagel, H. L.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hemberger, J.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hensel, H.-J.

Hisatake, S.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M. Y.

Jonuscheit, J.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

Kitahara, G.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

Koch, M.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Künzel, H.

Kuzel, P.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

Lee, D.

Leem, Y. A.

Lorincik, J.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mangeney, J.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marx, J.

Mayorga, I. C.

Mics, Z.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molter, D.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, H.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noh, S. K.

Novak, V.

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

Roehle, H.

Roggenbuck, A.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rtz, F.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-C.

Sartorius, B.

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schell, M.

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, S.

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

Schlak, M.

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

Schmitz, H.

A. Roggenbuck, K. Thirunavukkuarasu, H. Schmitz, J. Marx, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten, J. Hemberger, and M. Grüninger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 614 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, J.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stanze, D.

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

H. Roehle, R. J. B. Dietz, H.-J. Hensel, J. Böttcher, H. Künzel, D. Stanze, M. Schell, and B. Sartorius, Opt. Express 18, 2296 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sydlo, C.

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thirunavukkuarasu, K.

Weinland, T.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, N.

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Sigmund, C. Sydlo, H. L. Hartnagel, N. Benker, H. Fuess, F. Rtz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eletron. Lett. (1)

D. Stanze, T. Göbel, R. J. B. Dietz, B. Sartorius, and M. Schell, Eletron. Lett. 47, 1292 (2011).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. Hisatake, G. Kitahara, K. Ajito, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 31 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Fekete, H. Nemec, Z. Mics, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, V. Novak, J. Lorincık, M. Martin, J. Mangeney, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 093721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. (1)

D. Stanze, A. Deninger, A. Roggenbuck, S. Schindler, M. Schlak, and B. Sartorius, J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. W. 32, 225 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. Cámara Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, and M. Grüninger, New J. Phys. 12, 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Semiconductor structure and contact metallization of the photomixer. To optimize the performance as a cw THz receiver, the thickness of the InGaAs layers was increased from 12 to 24 nm in steps of 6 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DC responsivity versus optical power and InGaAs layer thickness. The symbols mark measurement points; the dashed lines are a linear fit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SNR of the coherent THz system for the 24/8nm InGaAs/InAlAs receiver and an integration time of 200 ms. The inset shows the fiber-coupled module, whose dimensions (25 mm diameter, 32 mm length) are identical for emitter and receiver.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detected THz signal in comparison with the water vapor absorption lines as found in the HITRAN database for the frequency range from 2.6–3.4 THz. We note that the absorption line at 3.335 THz is clearly visible.

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