Abstract

Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiV-containing NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

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  1. Y. Urano, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 16, 602 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).
  3. J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, Proc. R. Soc. A 348, 285 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

Y. Urano, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 16, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

A. Krueger and D. Lang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto and A. Boretti, Opt. Lett. 36, 4224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, and J. E. Butler, Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, Proc. R. Soc. A 348, 285 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, S. I.

S. I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, and J. E. Butler, Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. S.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. F.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basov, A. A.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boretti, A.

Breuer, S. J.

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Briddon, P. R.

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burridge, P.

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

Butler, J. E.

S. I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, and J. E. Butler, Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

S. Castelletto and A. Boretti, Opt. Lett. 36, 4224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-S.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-Y.

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

Collin, C.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, Proc. R. Soc. A 348, 285 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, M. P.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gogotsi, Y.

V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goovaerts, E.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goss, J. P.

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gsell, S.

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

Gu, J.

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

Hamer, M. F.

G. Davies and M. F. Hamer, Proc. R. Soc. A 348, 285 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heilemann, M.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, D.

V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, H.-H.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanzyuba, M. V.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, R.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V. I.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, A.

A. Krueger and D. Lang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lang, D.

A. Krueger and D. Lang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lebedev, O. I.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mamin, H. J.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McCallum, J. C.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merson, T. D.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mochalin, V. N.

V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, N.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neu, E.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Öberg, S.

J. P. Goss, R. Jones, S. J. Breuer, P. R. Briddon, and S. Öberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, K.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Person, B.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, New J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, and J. E. Butler, Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rähn, M.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ralchenko, V. G.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rettner, C. T.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Riedrich-Möller, J.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rietze, R. L.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saveliev, A. V.

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schreck, M.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Neu, M. Fischer, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shenderova, O.

V. N. Mochalin, O. Shenderova, D. Ho, and Y. Gogotsi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, M. H.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 339, 557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shiryaev, A. A.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sildos, I.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinhauer, C.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, D.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, T.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tinnefeld, P.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner, S.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Urano, Y.

Y. Urano, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 16, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Tendeloo, G.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, I. I.

I. I. Vlasov, O. Shenderova, S. Turner, O. I. Lebedev, A. A. Basov, I. Sildos, M. Rähn, A. A. Shiryaev, and G. Van Tendeloo, Small 6, 687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogelsang, J.

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voss, A. K.

T. D. Merson, M. P. Dixon, C. Collin, R. L. Rietze, P. F. Bartlett, T. Thomas, and A. K. Voss, J. Neurosci. 26, 11359 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. C.

E. Gu, W.-Y. Chen, J. Gu, P. Burridge, and J. C. Wu, Theranostics 2, 335 (2012).

Wu, Y.-C.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, and H.-C. Chang, Nano Lett. 10, 3692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Krueger and D. Lang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 890 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. I. Vlasov, A. S. Barnard, V. G. Ralchenko, O. I. Lebedev, M. V. Kanzyuba, A. V. Saveliev, V. I. Konov, and E. Goovaerts, Adv. Mater. 21, 808 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, and P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 5465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

Y. Urano, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 16, 602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diam. Relat. Mater. (1)

S. I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, and J. E. Butler, Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structural and spectral properties of SiV-containing NDs. (a) Scanning electron micrographs of a SiV-containing ND synthesized by CVD. Illustration of the Si atom in a di-vacancy interstitial position in the diamond lattice. (b) Typical emission spectra of the SiV observed in CVD NDs compared to the emission of NV centers. The figure clearly illustrates the advantage of the SiV for bio-labeling due to its narrowband fluorescence in the near infrared range. (c) Plot of photo-stability of SiV emitted fluorescence following continuous excitation (532 nm) for over 1.5 h. Fluctuations in intensity were merely due to laser instability that occurred during only these specific measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

NPCs isolated from the adult mouse brain exhibit high biocompatibility with NDs. (a) Schematic view of the adult mouse brain in sagittal axis. Primary NPCs were isolated from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. NPCs contribute to neurogenesis by migrating to the olfactory bulb via the rostral migratory stream. (b) Morphology of NPC-derived neurosphere cultures assessed 7 days after culture with NDs added at time of passaging. Scale bar: 100 μm. (c) NPCs labeled with 20 or 40μg/ml NDs exhibited normal increases in cell yield. NDs at 100μg/ml caused a small but significant increase in cell yield relative to basal (P<0.05, one-way ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc analysis). (d) Assessment of cell death of NPCs cultured in the presence of NDs using the LDH cytotoxicity assay. After 4 and 7 days of culture NPCs cultured with NDs had LDH levels that were equivalent to those cultured under basal conditions without NDs indicating that NDs are biocompatible and nontoxic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Epifluorescence image of NPCs grown with enhanced NV centers containing NDs (upper images) and dark field images (bottom) of the same sample area. The NDs incubated with the cells were 35 and 100 nm, respectively. The 35 nm NDs show a limited emission compared to the 100 nm ND. Scale bar: 50 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) A confocal image of NPCs grown on NDs merged with a bright field image of the neurosphere in grayscale collected by Nomarski optics revealing the exceptional contrast of SiV-containing NDs over cell background. (b) PL of SiV in CVD NDs and NDs implanted with Si in cell culture and without cells. The broader emission of the SiV in the cultured cell sample was attributed to the use of a thick cover glass for which the objective was not fully corrected, inducing a larger focal volume collection compared to the case where only NDs were imaged.

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