Abstract

Sensitivity, dynamic range and detection efficiency are among the key figures of merit for 1550 nm wavelength detectors that find applications in communications, sensing, and imaging. Some fundamental material and device limits have added tremendous difficulties for a single device to achieve high sensitivity and dynamic range without significant trade-offs. We present a concept that can potentially overcome this performance bottleneck. Preliminary results have shown a sensitivity of 10 photons (six photons from the quantum limit) and a large dynamic range (in the sense that output increases monotonically with input). The concept opens up a new avenue for detecting single photons in non-Geiger-mode with near 100% detection efficiency.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.
  2. B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Yasuoka, H. Kuwatsuka, and A. Kuramata, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2004), paper TuM2.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Y. Huang and H. Morkoc, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 405 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Renker, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 567, 48 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 153504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Cheng, S. You, S. Rahman, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Express 19, 15149 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. D. Shushakov and V. Shubin, Proc. SPIE 2397, 544 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. N. Chazalviel, in Coulomb Screening by Mobile Charges: Applications to Materials Science, Chemistry, and Biology (Springer, 1999), Chap. 1.
  20. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 13.
  21. G. P. Agrawal, in Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2010), Chap. 4.

2013

S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Cheng, S. You, S. Rahman, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Express 19, 15149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. G. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, Opt. Express 18, 16474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Renker, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 567, 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Shushakov and V. Shubin, Proc. SPIE 2397, 544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Y. Huang and H. Morkoc, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, M. N.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acerbi, F.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, in Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2010), Chap. 4.

Aoyagi, T.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chazalviel, J. N.

J. N. Chazalviel, in Coulomb Screening by Mobile Charges: Applications to Materials Science, Chemistry, and Biology (Springer, 1999), Chap. 1.

Chen, H. W.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, S. You, S. Rahman, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Express 19, 15149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dentai, A. G.

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Entwistle, M.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Michael, M. A. Itzler, B. Nyman, and M. Entwistle, in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Summer Topical Meetings (2006), pp. 15–16.

Enwistle, M.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J. F.

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, D.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. Y.

F. Y. Huang and H. Morkoc, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishimura, E.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

Itamoto, H.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

Itzler, M. A.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Michael, M. A. Itzler, B. Nyman, and M. Entwistle, in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Summer Topical Meetings (2006), pp. 15–16.

Jang, K.

Jazwiechi, M.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joo, J.

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, S.

Ko, J.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuramata, A.

N. Yasuoka, H. Kuwatsuka, and A. Kuramata, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2004), paper TuM2.

Kuwatsuka, H.

N. Yasuoka, H. Kuwatsuka, and A. Kuramata, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2004), paper TuM2.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. D.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng, S. You, S. Rahman, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Express 19, 15149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 153504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lohokare, S. K.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mauk, M. G.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mcintosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mei, Z.

S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J. H.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. B.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Michael, M. A. Itzler, B. Nyman, and M. Entwistle, in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Summer Topical Meetings (2006), pp. 15–16.

Morkoc, H.

F. Y. Huang and H. Morkoc, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakaji, M.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

Ng, K. K.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 13.

Nyman, B.

R. B. Michael, M. A. Itzler, B. Nyman, and M. Entwistle, in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Summer Topical Meetings (2006), pp. 15–16.

Onat, B. M.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qua, G.

J. C. Campbell, A. G. Dentai, G. Qua, and J. F. Ferguson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1134 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, S.

S. Rahman, D. Hall, Z. Mei, and Y. H. Lo, Proc. SPIE 8727, 87270P (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng, S. You, S. Rahman, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Express 19, 15149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rand, J. A.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Refaat, T. F.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renker, D.

D. Renker, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 567, 48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saad, Y.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, Y. Saad, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, W. S. Zaoudi, H. W. Chen, D. Dai, J. E. Bowers, H. D. Liu, D. C. Mcintosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, Nat. Photonics 3, 59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, V.

D. Shushakov and V. Shubin, Proc. SPIE 2397, 544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shushakov, D.

D. Shushakov and V. Shubin, Proc. SPIE 2397, 544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slomkowski, K.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Snacks, R. N.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sulima, O. V.

O. V. Sulima, T. F. Refaat, M. G. Mauk, J. A. Cox, J. Li, S. K. Lohokare, M. N. Abedin, U. N. Singh, and J. A. Rand, Electron. Lett. 40, 766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 13.

Tokuda, Y.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

Tosi, A.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Enwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

B. F. Levine, R. N. Snacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiechi, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, and J. H. Meier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. B. Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yagyu, E.

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, and Y. Tokuda, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2007), paper OThG2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Three-terminal device structure (not to scale). Bottom electrode bias provides the field in the y direction for avalanche multiplication. The center electrode bias provides the x-directional field along the InP FET channel. (b) Optical micrograph of a fabricated device. (c)–(e) Events in time sequence after light detection (grading layers not shown). (c) At t=0, an incident photon generates an electron-hole pair, leading to impact ionization (t=t1). At t=t2 holes generated from avalanche multiplication are blocked at the barrier. (d) Accumulated holes at t=t3 produce three effects: (i) reduce the E-field in the multiplication region, (ii) attract electrons from the n+ emitter (BJT) to the PIN region, and (iii) induce electrons flowing from the center electrode to the outer electrode through the channel. (e) Holes escape the barrier at t=t4 and the device returns to the state prior to light detection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated results from analytical device model. Structural parameters: effective device area, A=200μm2; multiplication region width, W=0.8μm; barrier width, L=0.4μm; τ=100ns. (a) Stability chart of the device. In the “unstable region” the DC gain approaches infinity and the device operates similar to a Geiger-mode detector although at lower bias voltage. (b) Coupled APD/bipolar gain versus bipolar gain for different input photons per pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured gain: (a) APD/bipolar gain and (b) total gain (including the FET contribution) from pulsed light input. All gain values were obtained by dividing the amount of charge in the corresponding output pulses [i.e., Ib and Is in Fig. 1(a)] by the number of photons per pulse.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Histogram for the measured amplitude of the output signals under different photon numbers in the input pulse. (b) BER dependence on the number of photons per input pulse using the relation, BER=(1/2)erfc(Q/2), Q=(μ1μ0)/(σ1+σ0), where σ0, σ1, μ1 and μ0 are the dark and light standard deviations and means of the amplitude distributions, respectively [21].

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