Abstract

We present a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Pulses from a 1 μm Yb-doped fiber laser are amplified and frequency converted to 779–808 nm through normal dispersion four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber. The idler frequency is resonant in the oscillator cavity, and we find that bandpass filtering the feedback is essential for stable, narrow-bandwidth output. Experimental results agree quite well with numerical simulations of the device. Transform-limited 2 ps pulses with energy up to 4 nJ can be generated at the signal wavelength. The average power is 180 mW, and the relative-intensity noise is much lower than that of a similar parametric amplifier. High-quality coherent Raman images of mouse tissues recorded with this source are presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

P. J. Mosley, S. A. Bateman, L. Lavoute, and W. J. Wadsworth, Opt. Express 19, 25337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7903, 790310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

Abreu-Afonso, J.

Andresen, E. R.

Bateman, S. A.

Baumgartl, M.

Carrasco, S.

Chemnitz, M.

Chen, S.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.-X.

C.-R. Hu, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. D. Lin, G. Simpson, B. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, Opt. Lett. 38, 1479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dez, A.

Dietzek, B.

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, D.

Fukui, K.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gottschall, T.

Goulart, C.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herda, R.

Holtom, G. R.

Hu, B.

Hu, C.-R.

Hult, J.

Itoh, K.

Jauregui, C.

Kanematsu, Y.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Keiding, S. R.

Kieu, K.

Kishi, T.

Kong, L.

Kopf, D.

Krauss, G.

Lavoute, L.

Lefrancois, S.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Limpert, J.

Lin, J. D.

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mosley, P. J.

Nielsen, C. K.

Nishizawa, N.

Nose, K.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Ozeki, Y.

Paschotta, R.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Kieu and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7903, 790310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popp, J.

Rothhardt, M.

Saar, B. G.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 34, 2051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, P.

Seitz, W.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Sharping, J. E.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, G.

Slipchenko, M. N.

C.-R. Hu, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. D. Lin, G. Simpson, B. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, Opt. Lett. 38, 1479 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, K.

Thøgersen, J.

Tong, W.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Träutlein, D.

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, P.

Wei, H.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

Zach, A.

Zhai, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Zumbusch, A.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-H. Zhai, C. Goulart, J. E. Sharping, H. Wei, S. Chen, W. Tong, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Zhang, and J.-X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Kieu and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7903, 790310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Results of simulations. (a) Signal pulse and spectrum without filter. (b) Signal pulse and spectrum with filter. (c) Filtered FWM: pump (solid curve), signal (dashed curve), and idler (dotted curve) pulses. (d) Signal spectrum. The input pulse is centered at 1035 nm with 7.5 ps duration and 1.95 kW peak power. Idler feedback is centered at 1468 nm with a 2 nm Gaussian filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results: picked-off pump (a) spectrum and (b) autocorrelation. Signal (c) spectrum and (d) autocorrelation with a 2850cm1 frequency shift from the pump.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Epi-CARS images at 2850cm1. (a) White matter in mouse brain section. (b) Cortex in mouse brain section. (c) Stratum corneum. (d) Sebaceous gland in mouse ear. 512×512 pixels at 2–4 μs per pixel, no averaging.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Epi-CARS images of sebaceous glands in mouse ear at the (a) 2850cm1 and (b) 2930cm1 frequency shifts, which show the increase in the protein signal at the 2930cm1 shift. 512×512 pixels at 2 μs per pixel, no averaging.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Megahertz RIN measurement on fiber sources for coherent Raman microscopy taken with a resolution bandwidth of 6.5 kHz. The OPA measurement references the work done in [9].

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