Abstract

A method for polarization metrology based on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon, occurring in biaxial crystals, is reported. CR transforms an input Gaussian beam into a light ring whose intensity distribution is linked to the incoming polarization. We present the design of a division-of-amplitude complete polarimeter composed of two biaxial crystals, whose measurement principle is based on the CR phenomenon. This design corresponds to a static polarimeter, that is, without mechanical movements or electrical signal addressing. Only one division-of-amplitude device is required, besides the two biaxial crystals, to completely characterize any state of polarization, including partially polarized and unpolarized states. In addition, a mathematical model describing the system is included. Experimental images of the intensity distribution related to different input polarization states are provided. These intensity patterns are compared with simulated values, proving the potential of polarimeters based on biaxial crystals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Turpin, Y. V. Loiko, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and J. Mompart, Opt. Lett. 38, 1455 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2008

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Kalkandjiev and M. A. Bursukova, Proc. SPIE 6994, 69940B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, Prog. Opt. 50, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mikhailichenko, Russ. Phys. J. 50, 788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 462, 1629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1992

1990

1978

A. M. Belskii and A. P. Khapalyuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 44, 436 (1978).

Abdolvand, A.

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, M. R.

Arteaga, O.

Ballantine, K. E.

Belskii, A. M.

A. M. Belskii and A. P. Khapalyuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 44, 436 (1978).

Benali, A.

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, Prog. Opt. 50, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 462, 1629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bursukova, M. A.

T. K. Kalkandjiev and M. A. Bursukova, Proc. SPIE 6994, 69940B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

Chipman, R. A.

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

Compain, E.

De Martino, A.

del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

Descour, M. R.

Domingo, V.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Drevillon, B.

Drévillon, B.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foldyna, M.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthal, J.

Garcia-Caurel, E.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasent, J. L.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gayet, B.

Georges, B.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. H.

D. H. Goldstein, Appl. Opt. 31, 6676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein, Polarized Light, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2010).

D. H. Goldstein, Polarized Light, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Heredero, R. L.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

Jeffrey, M. R.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, Prog. Opt. 50, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 462, 1629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jochum, L.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kahr, B.

Kalkandjiev, T. K.

Kemme, S. A.

Khapalyuk, A. P.

A. M. Belskii and A. P. Khapalyuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 44, 436 (1978).

Lizana, A.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Peinado, A. Lizana, J. Vidal, C. Iemmi, and J. Campos, Opt. Express 18, 9815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loiko, Y.

Loiko, Y. V.

López Jiménez, A. C.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunney, J. G.

Martínez Pillet, V.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailichenko, Y.

Y. Mikhailichenko, Russ. Phys. J. 50, 788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mompart, J.

Nicolas, D.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, T.

O’Dwyer, D. P.

Peinado, A.

Phelan, C. F.

Phipps, G. S.

Pierangelo, A.

Rafailov, E. U.

Rakovich, Y. P.

Sabatke, D. S.

Stchakovsky, M.

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

Taylor, P.

P. Taylor, Theory and Applications of Numerical Analysis, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1996).

Turpin, A.

Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Validire, P.

Vidal, J.

Wang, B.

Wilcox, K. G.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. D

A. Lizana, M. Foldyna, M. Stchakovsky, B. Georges, D. Nicolas, and E. Garcia-Caurel, J. Phys. D 46, 105501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Spectrosc.

A. M. Belskii and A. P. Khapalyuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 44, 436 (1978).

Phys. Status Solidi C

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, R. L. Heredero, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, L. Jochum, and V. Martínez Pillet, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. G. Lunney, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 462, 1629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. K. Kalkandjiev and M. A. Bursukova, Proc. SPIE 6994, 69940B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, Prog. Opt. 50, 13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russ. Phys. J.

Y. Mikhailichenko, Russ. Phys. J. 50, 788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, Thin Solid Films 455–456, 120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. H. Goldstein, Polarized Light, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2010).

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

D. H. Goldstein, Polarized Light, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

P. Taylor, Theory and Applications of Numerical Analysis, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

CR light ring for (a) a circularly polarized input beam and (b) a horizontal linearly polarized input beam. Orange double arrows show the polarization distribution at each point of the CR ring.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Proposed setup of the polarimeter based on two biaxial crystals. The incident light beam is divided into two arms for separate analysis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PAs represented upon the Poincaré sphere. The red line corresponds to the linear detection arm and the blue line to the elliptical detection arm (assuming that the QWP is at 0°).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental images acquired by cameras of (a)–(g) arm 1, and (h)–(n) arm 2 when illuminating with linearly polarized light at (a) and (h) 0°, at (b) and (i) 90°, at (c) and (j) 45°, at (d) and (k) 135°, with circularly polarized light (e) and (l) right-handed and (f) and (m) left-handed and with (g) and (n) unpolarized light.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated intensity profile in the continuous blue line and experimental intensity profile in the red spots, as a function of φ, the position along the ring of (a)–(g) arm 1 and (h)–(n) arm 2; when illuminating with linearly polarized light at (a) and (h) 0°, at (b) and (i) 90°, at (c) and (j) 45°, and at (d) and (k) 135°, with circularly polarized light (e) and (l) right-handed and (f) and (m) left-handed and with (g) and (n) unpolarized light.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ=φ+φC2,
ICCD1(φ)=12(1cosφsinφ0)·(S0S1S2S3)T,
ICCD2(φ)=12(1cosφ0sinφ)·(S0S1S2S3)T,
ICCD1(φ)=S02{1+DoP·cos2ε[2cos2(φ2α)1]},
ICCD2(φ)=S02+DoP·S02[cos2εcos2αcosφ+sin2εsinφ].

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