Abstract

A chiral liquid, whose constituent molecules lack mirror symmetry, exhibits a minor differential refractive index (RI) between the two circular polarization components. Theoretical analysis shows that the ultrahigh-order modes excited in a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide (SMCW) are polarization-independent and have a highly sensitive response to the RI variation. We report the observation of circular differential reflectivity in a chiral liquid-filled SMCW and propose an alternative simple technique capable of determining enantiomeric excess with high sensitivity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2004).
  2. E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 31, 453 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ghosh and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 173002 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ghosh, W. Hill, and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 055402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ghosh, F. M. Fazal, and P. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 32, 1836 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Pfeifer and P. Fischer, Opt. Express 19, 16508 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. D. Parks and S. E. Spence, Appl. Opt. 51, 3364 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. P. Rajan and A. Ghosh, Opt. Lett. 37, 1232 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. P. Rajan and A. Ghosh, Appl. Opt. 51, 6480 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).
  15. Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Feng, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and F. Chen, Appl. Opt. 46, 58 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, Appl. Opt. 26, 833 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
  19. J. Hao, H. Li, C. Yin, and Z. Cao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeifer and P. Fischer, Opt. Express 19, 16508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 31, 453 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghosh and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 173002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).

1987 (1)

Abbate, S.

E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barron, L. D.

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2004).

Cao, Z.

J. Hao, H. Li, C. Yin, and Z. Cao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Feng, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and F. Chen, Appl. Opt. 46, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Castiglioni, E.

E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chen, G.

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, F. M.

Feng, Y.

Fischer, P.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).

Ghosh, A.

Gu, J.

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

He, Y.

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Hill, W.

A. Ghosh, W. Hill, and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 055402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).

Jones, N. D.

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Hao, H. Li, C. Yin, and Z. Cao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

Longhi, G.

E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mittler, S.

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parks, A. D.

Pfeifer, M.

Preston, T. C.

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, R. P.

Shen, Q.

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

Y. Feng, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and F. Chen, Appl. Opt. 46, 58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spence, S. E.

Stille, S.

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).

Yin, C.

Yu, T.

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. C. Preston, N. D. Jones, S. Stille, and S. Mittler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, H. Li, Z. Cao, T. Yu, Q. Shen, and Y. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chirality (1)

E. Castiglioni, S. Abbate, and G. Longhi, Chirality 23, 711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

J. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, J. Phys. D 41, 185105 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Ghosh, W. Hill, and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 055402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ghosh and P. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 173002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).

Other (1)

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Structure of the SMCW. Molecular structure of (b) S- and R-limonene, and (c) S- and R-carvone.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerical simulation of a typical ultrahigh-order mode. The circular differential reflectivity ΔR between the two circular polarization components is illustrated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the experimental setup, where A denotes aperture, PEM denotes photoelastic modulator, and PD denotes photodiode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Circular differential reflectivity ΔR between the two circular polarization components as a function of the chiral liquid’s (limonene’s and carvone’s) enantiomeric excess, which is defined as the percent concentration difference between the two mirror-image forms of the liquid, denoted S and R, respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ3h3=mπ+arctan(α4κ3)+arctan{κ2κ3tan[arctan(α1κ2)κ2h2]},m=0,1,2,,
S=dRdn3=(RN)(Nn3)(Rθ)(Nn3)=S1S2,
S2=Q3n3N,

Metrics