Abstract

We experimentally investigate the performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free space optical (FSO) communication link through emulated atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence effects on the crosstalk and system power penalty of the FSO link are characterized. The experimental results show that the power of the transmitted OAM mode will tend to spread uniformly onto the neighboring mode in medium-to-strong turbulence, resulting in severe crosstalk at the receiver. The power penalty is found to exceed 10 dB in a weak-to-medium turbulence condition due to the turbulence-induced crosstalk and power fluctuation of the received signal.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Paterson, Phy. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

1997 (1)

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

V. W. S. Chan, IEEE Trans. Comm. 30, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
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L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Anguita, J. A.

Azucena, O.

Baker, K. L.

Barnett, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
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Berkhout, G. C.

Birnbaum, K.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Boyd, R.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Boyd, R. W.

Cai, X.

Chan, V. W. S.

V. W. S. Chan, IEEE Trans. Comm. 30, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekaran, N.

N. Chandrasekaran, J. H. Shapiro, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8518, 851808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Courtial, J.

Crawford, J.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Erkmen, B.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flath, L. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gavel, D.

Geisler, D. J.

Gibson, G.

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Kartz, M. W.

Klein, L.

Krulevitch, P.

Lavery, M.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Lavery, M. P. J.

Love, G. D.

Malik, M.

Mirhosseini, M.

Moloney, J.

Neifeld, M. A.

O’Sullivan, M. N.

Olivier, S. S.

Olsen, J.

Padgett, M.

B. Rodenburg, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 37, 3735 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yao and M. Padgett, Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Opt. Express 12, 5448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson, Phy. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peleg, A.

Phillips, R.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Polynkin, P.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Rhoadarmer, T.

Robertson, D. J.

Rodenburg, B.

Rogawski, D.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Scott, R. P.

Shapiro, J.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Shapiro, J. H.

N. Chandrasekaran, J. H. Shapiro, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8518, 851808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. A.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steinhoff, N.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Su, T.

Tucker, J.

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Tyler, G. A.

Vasic, B. V.

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

N. Chandrasekaran, J. H. Shapiro, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8518, 851808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

Willner, A.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G.

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Young, P. E.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Comm. (1)

V. W. S. Chan, IEEE Trans. Comm. 30, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phy. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Paterson, Phy. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Chandrasekaran, J. H. Shapiro, and L. Wang, Proc. SPIE 8518, 851808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wave Random Media (1)

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. R. Weeks, Wave Random Media 7, 229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, B. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. Lavery, J. Shapiro, N. Steinhoff, M. Tur, M. Padgett, R. Boyd, and A. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2013), paper CM2G.4.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. Tur, B. Erkmen, K. Birnbaum, S. Dolinar, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Willner, Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC, 2013), paper OTh4G.5.

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept diagram of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on an OAM beam. A distorted OAM mode can be decomposed into multiple OAM modes [5].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of an OAM multiplexed FSO communication system. BPF, bandpass filter; Col., Collimator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; FM, flip mirror; DAC, digital–analog converter; DSP, digital signal processing; HWP, half-wave plate; LO, local oscillator; OC, optical coupler; PC, polarization controller; QPSK, quadrature phase shift keying.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized histograms of experimental data samples and lognormal fitting curves (red line) when transmitting Gaussian beam (OAM l=0); The scintillation index σ12 is 0.187 with a correlation coefficient R=0.9934. (b) Average Strehl ratio of the received images. The measured beam diameter incident onto the phase screen plate is D=2.2mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized average power in detected modes as a function of turbulence strength D/r0 for an input mode l=2. The solid lines are theoretical predications taking into account the inherent crosstalk of the mode sorter [16].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average power ratio on neighboring OAM channels when transmitting modes l=0 (upper) and l=3 (lower) under different emulated turbulence conditions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average BER under different turbulence strengths when transmitting (a) only OAM mode l=3 and (b) three OAM multiplexed channels l=1, 3, 5. OSNR: optical signal-to-noise ratio.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Instantaneous BER of OAM channel l=3 over 60 s at turbulence strength of D/r0=1.93 with a fixed transmitted power. The inset illustrates the received signal fluctuation.

Equations (1)

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C˜n2=Cn2d=2.36(λ2π)2r05/3,

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