Abstract

Based on analytic formulas and numerical simulations, we investigate the enhancement effect of Au gratings with spoof plasmon resonances on quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) operating between 2 and 30 μm. It is found that a simple analytic formula can well estimate the resonant wavelengths of Au gratings. Using optimal grating parameters, the absorption in the QW active region can be enhanced by 4-5 times compared with that in the reference structure (without gratings and with an isotropic active region). For s-polarized light, a high enhancement (>1.4) can occur in a broad range of incident angle (|θ|<40°).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. Wu, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. C. Lee, S. Krishna, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Express 17, 23160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Krishna, J. Phys. D 38, 2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

Abbott, R. R.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Antoszewski, J.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barve, A. V.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biasiol, G.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonakdar, A.

W. Wu, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Bur, J. A.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diem, M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dini, D.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faraone, L.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasnain, G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, S. J.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W.

Kang, S.

Kennerly, S.

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. O.

Kim, Y. S.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

Z. Ku, W. Jang, J. Zhou, J. O. Kim, A. V. Barve, S. Silva, S. Krishna, S. R. J. Brueck, R. Nelson, A. Urbas, S. Kang, and S. J. Lee, Opt. Express 21, 4709 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Lee, S. Krishna, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Express 17, 23160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Krishna, J. Phys. D 38, 2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Z.

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. P.

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. C.

Lee, S. J.

Leung, W. Y.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. L.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. S.

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. Q.

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. Q.

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. C.

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCaffrey, J.

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

W. Wu, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R.

Ordal, M. A.

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelve, E.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, Y. D.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, V. O.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shenoi, R. V.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorba, L.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Towe, E.

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

Vandervelde, T. E.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, S. Q.

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Zhai, J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, M. Gao, J. McCaffrey, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Fafard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Ling, S. Y. Wang, C. P. Lee, and M. C. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

S. Krishna, J. Phys. D 38, 2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

C. C. Chang, Y. D. Sharma, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Bur, R. V. Shenoi, S. Krishna, D. Huang, and S. Y. Lin, Nano Lett. 10, 1704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Dini, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 116401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, ed. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Side view of a photonic structure that is composed of a top Au grating with thickness t1, a GaAs layer with thickness t2, a QW active layer with thickness t3, and a GaAs substrate. The structure is illuminated by light at incident angle θ. (b) Top view of the Au grating with hole size Δ and period a. (c) Average of |Ez|2 in the xy plane as a function of z for the resonant peaks I and II in Fig. 2(a). Distributions of |Ez| at [(d) and (f)] the lower surface of Au grating and [(e) and (g)] the center of QW layer, with the dashed lines showing the positions of holes. The incident light is s polarized and has |E|=1. The results in (c)–(g) are calculated by the scattering matrix method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Absorption in different layers at normal incidence for the structure with an IQW active layer as shown in Fig. 1(a). The parameters are a=4.6μm, Δ=0.5a, t1=0.2μm, t2=0.2μm, t3=0.4μm, and p=0.5. The dashed line shows the absorption of reference Aref defined in the text. (b) Absorption enhancement AE when different (IQW, IQD, and RQW with λW=15.15μm) active layers are used in (a). The green dotted line is the result when the Au grating is replaced by a GaAs one with the same parameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption in the active layer at (a) θ=0°, (b) θ=20°, (c) θ=40°, and (d) θ=60° for the structure studied in Fig. 2. The red dashed (black solid) lines are for the case with an IQW active layer and p- (s-) polarized incident light. The blue thin solid lines are for the case with a RQW layer and s polarized incident light. The vertical dashed lines near peaks I1, I2, I3, II1 and II2 are obtained by using (i,j)=(1,0), (0,1), (1,0), (1,1), and (1,1) in Eq. (1), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelengths and absorption enhancement of peaks I and II in Fig. 2(a) as a function of [(a) and (b)] the hole size Δ, [(c) and (d)] grating thickness t1, and [(e) and (f)] Im(εz)p of the IQW active layer. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Wavelengths, (b) maximal absorption enhancement, and (c) corresponding optimal grating thickness t1 as functions of the period a for peaks I and II in Fig. 2(a). Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a). In (a), the circles and triangles are obtained by SMM simulations, the lines are from Eq. (1), and the stars are from the experimental results in [11]. The results in (b) and (c) are obtained by SMM calculations.

Equations (2)

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[(sinθ)/λ+i/a]2+(j/a)2=nSSP/λ,
εQW=diag(εx,εy,εz),εx=εy=εGaAs,εz=εGaAs+bpi,b=1(ifγWfW2f2ifγW)forIQW(RQW).

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