Abstract

A new method to quantify three-dimensional particle fields using digital in-line holography is presented. From sequentially recorded holograms, the maximum cross correlation of edge sharpness within local particle windows yields an accurate measurement of particle displacements. Experiments demonstrate out-of-plane displacement uncertainty of approximately 0.15 mean particle diameters, which is roughly an order-of-magnitude improvement compared with alternative methods. Application to shotgun pellets demonstrates robustness despite experimental noise.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).
  2. J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Tian, N. Loomis, J. A. Domínguez-Caballero, and G. Barbastathis, Appl. Opt. 49, 1549 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, V. Kulkarni, P. E. Sojka, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 1893 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. R. Guildenbecher, J. Gao, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 52, 3790 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).
  9. T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Nobach and M. Honkanen, Exp. Fluids 38, 511 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Nobach and M. Honkanen, Exp. Fluids 38, 511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, C.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

Buchmann, N. A.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, V. Kulkarni, P. E. Sojka, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 1893 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. Gao, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 52, 3790 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Domínguez-Caballero, J. A.

Fugal, J. P.

J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. Gao, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 52, 3790 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, V. Kulkarni, P. E. Sojka, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 1893 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Guildenbecher, D. R.

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, V. Kulkarni, P. E. Sojka, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 1893 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. Gao, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 52, 3790 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Honkanen, M.

H. Nobach and M. Honkanen, Exp. Fluids 38, 511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Katz, J.

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koek, W.

T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, V.

Loomis, N.

Nobach, H.

H. Nobach and M. Honkanen, Exp. Fluids 38, 511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ooms, T.

T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reu, P. L.

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, V. Kulkarni, P. E. Sojka, and J. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 1893 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. Gao, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Appl. Opt. 52, 3790 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Schulz, T. J.

J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, R. A.

J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, J.

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sojka, P. E.

Soria, J.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

Westerweel, J.

T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Exp. Fluids (1)

H. Nobach and M. Honkanen, Exp. Fluids 38, 511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

T. Ooms, W. Koek, and J. Westerweel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Fugal, T. J. Schulz, and R. A. Shaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, “Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method,” Opt. Express (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic experimental configuration for digital in-line holography (DIH) of a 3D particle field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Holograms of a quasi-stationary particle field (a) before and (b) after displacing the field by Δz=2.00mm [7]; here a subregion of 1024×1024 pixels is shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Maximum 2D cross-correlation coefficient, c, of the Tenengrad images within the regions defined by the solid white boxes in Fig. 2. (b) and (c) Amplitude images at the maximum value of c (z1=194.72mm and z2=192.72mm, respectively). (d) and (e) Tenengrad images from (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured particle diameters, 3D positions, and 3C displacements from processing of the hologram pair in Fig. 2 with the proposed cross-correlation method.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Comparison of particle size distribution measured with DIH and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000. (b) A histogram of the measured z displacements from all hologram pairs considered.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Maximum 2D cross-correlation coefficient, c, of the Tenengrad images within the regions defined by the dashed white boxes in Fig. 2. (b) and (c) Amplitude images at the maximum value of c (z1=196.92mm and z2=195.02mm, respectively). (d) and (e) Amplitude images at the second local maximum value of c (z1=204.42mm and z2=202.48mm, respectively).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental holograms of shotgun pellets traveling perpendicular to the collimated laser beam, from right to left in the image; here the interframe time is 4 μs, and a subregion of 2048×2048 pixels is shown.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured diameters, 3D positions, and 3C velocities from processing of the hologram pair in Fig. 7 with the proposed cross-correlation method.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(x,y;z)=[h(x,y)Er*(x,y)]g(x,y;z).
c=maxΔx,Δy[mnImg1(m,n)Img2*(mΔx,nΔy)],
T(m,n)=[A(m,n)Sx]2+[A(m,n)Sy]2,

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