Abstract

We demonstrate a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to make high-quality nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) with intermediate Al2O3 layers to limit the crystal size. The process is based on titanium chloride (TiCl4)+water and trimethyl aluminum (TMA)+ozone processes at 250°C deposition temperature. The waveguide losses measured using a prism coupling method for 633 and 1551 nm wavelengths are as low as 0.2±0.1dB/mm with the smallest crystal size, with losses increasing with crystal size. In comparison, plain TiO2 deposited at 250°C without the intermediate Al2O3 layers shows high scattering losses and is not viable as waveguide material. The third-order optical nonlinearity decreases with smaller crystal size as verified by third-harmonic generation microscopy but still remains high for all samples. Crystallinity controlled ALD-grown TiO2 is an excellent candidate for various optical applications, where good thermal stability and high third-order optical nonlinearity are needed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Warren, X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1969).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2007

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, Opt. Lett. 32, 2242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hausmann and R. G. Gordon, J. Cryst. Growth 249, 251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

X. Ying, A. Feldman, and E. N. Farabaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aarik, J.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aidla, A.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Opt. 49, 4321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Maula and T. Alasaarela, “Method for forming a decorative coating, a coating, and uses of the same,” U.S. patent application2012/0218638 A1 (August30, 2012).

Babin, N.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bensaha, R.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bi, Z.-F.

Boudine, B.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudrioua, A.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Chakrabarti, K.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J. T.

Deotare, P. B.

Dong, M.-M.

Elliott, S.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. C.

Fakhri, M.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fanciulli, M.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farabaugh, E. N.

X. Ying, A. Feldman, and E. N. Farabaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

X. Ying, A. Feldman, and E. N. Farabaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Friedbacher, G.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furuhashi, M.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R. G.

D. M. Hausmann and R. G. Gordon, J. Cryst. Growth 249, 251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Görrn, P.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grasserbauer, M.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, K.

J. Maula, K. Härkönen, and A. Nikolov, “Multilayer material and method of preparing same,” U.S. patent7,901,736 (March, 8, 2011).

Hausmann, D. M.

D. M. Hausmann and R. G. Gordon, J. Cryst. Growth 249, 251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

Honkanen, S.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Opt. 49, 4321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jakob, T.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jussila, H.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karvonen, L.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, T.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, Opt. Lett. 32, 2242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, R.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Kujala, S.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.-H.

Loncar, M.

Mansuripur, M.

Martin, N.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maula, J.

J. Maula, K. Härkönen, and A. Nikolov, “Multilayer material and method of preparing same,” U.S. patent7,901,736 (March, 8, 2011).

J. Maula and T. Alasaarela, “Method for forming a decorative coating, a coating, and uses of the same,” U.S. patent application2012/0218638 A1 (August30, 2012).

Mazur, E.

Mechiakh, R.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, R.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meriche, F.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niinistö, L.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, A.

J. Maula, K. Härkönen, and A. Nikolov, “Multilayer material and method of preparing same,” U.S. patent7,901,736 (March, 8, 2011).

Norwood, R.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohshiro, T.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palmino, F.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parsy, F.

Pavia, G.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, K. C.

Prohaska, T.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, O.

Riedl, T.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rondot, D.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rönn, J.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rousselot, C.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruoho, M.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Saastamoinen, T.

Sammelselg, V.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Säynätjoki, A.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Opt. 49, 4321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scarel, G.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, P.

Takeuchi, S.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, M.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

Tsang, T.

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, M.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uustare, T.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.-M.

Wang, L.

Warren, B.

B. Warren, X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1969).

Wiemer, C.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

Ying, X.

X. Ying, A. Feldman, and E. N. Farabaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.-M.

Zhao, Q.-Z.

Adv. Mater.

M. Fakhri, N. Babin, A. Behrendt, T. Jakob, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, Adv. Mater. 25, 2821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, AIP Adv. 1, 032102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, Y. Chen, H. Jussila, J. Rönn, M. Ruoho, T. Alasaarela, S. Kujala, R. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, and S. Honkanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

S. Elliott, G. Scarel, C. Wiemer, M. Fanciulli, and G. Pavia, Chem. Mater. 18, 3764 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

X. Ying, A. Feldman, and E. N. Farabaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2056 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. M. Hausmann and R. G. Gordon, J. Cryst. Growth 249, 251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, T. Uustare, and V. Sammelselg, J. Cryst. Growth 148, 268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys.

J. Kim, K. Chakrabarti, J. Lee, K. Oh, and C. Lee, Mater. Chem. Phys. 78, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, Opt. Mater. 30, 645 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, Thin Solid Films 300, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, L. Niinistö, T. Prohaska, G. Friedbacher, and M. Grasserbauer, Thin Solid Films 249, 155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Maula, K. Härkönen, and A. Nikolov, “Multilayer material and method of preparing same,” U.S. patent7,901,736 (March, 8, 2011).

J. Maula and T. Alasaarela, “Method for forming a decorative coating, a coating, and uses of the same,” U.S. patent application2012/0218638 A1 (August30, 2012).

B. Warren, X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1969).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Powder XRD data from the strongest (101) anatase peak of a, S0; b, S4; c, S3; d, S2; and e, S1. The inset shows the all anatase peaks (101), (200), and (211) measured from S0.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM pictures from the different coatings on silicon pieces. S0, S4, and S3 are clearly crystalline with rather large crystallites in a lateral direction. The tiny crystallites on S1 and S2 are barely visible.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM scans from the different coatings on glass slides. S3 had slightly varying texture, and scans from two different positions are included. The height of the crystallite bumps is lower than the crystal termination thickness in all the samples.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Deposited Samples

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Table 2. Losses and THG Signal

Equations (1)

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L C = λ 6 ( n ( 3 ω ) n ( ω ) ) ,

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