Abstract

We present a method for measuring the average group refractive index of the human crystalline lens in vivo using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system which, allows full-length biometry of the eye. A series of OCT images of the eye including the anterior segment and retina were recorded during accommodation. Optical lengths of the anterior chamber, lens, and vitreous were measured dynamically along the central axis on the OCT images. The group refractive index of the crystalline lens along the central axis was determined using linear regression analysis of the intraocular optical length measurements. Measurements were acquired on three subjects of age 21, 24, and 35 years. The average group refractive index for the three subjects was, respectively, n=1.41, 1.43, and 1.39 at 835 nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
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  7. R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ruggeri, S. Uhlhorn, C. de Freitas, A. Ho, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1506 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1331 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, Vis. Res. 48, 2732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Atchison and G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

1991 (1)

C. Hitzenberger, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991).

1989 (1)

G. L. Van der Heijde and J. Weber, Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 830 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arrieta, E.

Atchison, D.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Atchison and G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auffarth, G.

T. Rabsiller, C. Jepsen, G. Auffarth, and M. Holzer, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Augusteyn, R.

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

Baumgartner, A.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borja, D.

D. Borja, D. Siedlecki, A. de Castro, S. Uhlhorn, S. Ortiz, E. Arrieta, J. M. Parel, S. Marcos, and F. Manns, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, Vis. Res. 48, 2732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

Chen, Y. A.

Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collins, M.

E. Woodman, S. Read, and M. Collins, Vis. Res. 72, 34 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A.

de Freitas, C.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Fercher, A.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Findl, O.

Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Hampson, K.

E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Himschall, N.

Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C.

C. Hitzenberger, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Ho, A.

Holzer, M.

T. Rabsiller, C. Jepsen, G. Auffarth, and M. Holzer, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, C.

T. Rabsiller, C. Jepsen, G. Auffarth, and M. Holzer, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, P.

E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasthurirangan, S.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mallen, E.

E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manns, F.

Marcos, S.

Markwell, E.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minei, R.

H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, R. Minei, and H. Suzuki, “Effect of accommodation on axial length measurment in optical coherence biometry,” presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.

Ortiz, S.

Parel, J. M.

Pope, J.

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabsiller, T.

T. Rabsiller, C. Jepsen, G. Auffarth, and M. Holzer, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Read, S.

E. Woodman, S. Read, and M. Collins, Vis. Res. 72, 34 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, A.

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

Ruggeri, M.

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Shimizu, K.

H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, R. Minei, and H. Suzuki, “Effect of accommodation on axial length measurment in optical coherence biometry,” presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.

Siedlecki, D.

Smith, G.

D. Atchison and G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, R. Minei, and H. Suzuki, “Effect of accommodation on axial length measurment in optical coherence biometry,” presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.

Uhlhorn, S.

Uozato, H.

H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, R. Minei, and H. Suzuki, “Effect of accommodation on axial length measurment in optical coherence biometry,” presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.

Van der Heijde, G. L.

G. L. Van der Heijde and J. Weber, Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 830 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J.

G. L. Van der Heijde and J. Weber, Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 830 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Woodman, E.

E. Woodman, S. Read, and M. Collins, Vis. Res. 72, 34 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziebarth, N. M.

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. Fercher, Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. (1)

S. Kasthurirangan, E. Markwell, D. Atchison, and J. Pope, Invest. Ophthaimol. Visual Sci. 49, 2531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

E. Mallen, P. Kashyap, and K. Hampson, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, O. Findl, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 2140 (1998).

Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. Hitzenberger, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991).

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

Y. A. Chen, N. Himschall, and O. Findl, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Rabsiller, C. Jepsen, G. Auffarth, and M. Holzer, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. Atchison and G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Vision (1)

R. Augusteyn, A. Rosen, D. Borja, N. M. Ziebarth, and J. M. Parel, Mol. Vision 12, 740 (2006).

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. L. Van der Heijde and J. Weber, Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 830 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (2)

S. Uhlhorn, D. Borja, F. Manns, and J. M. Parel, Vis. Res. 48, 2732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Woodman, S. Read, and M. Collins, Vis. Res. 72, 34 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Uozato, K. Shimizu, R. Minei, and H. Suzuki, “Effect of accommodation on axial length measurment in optical coherence biometry,” presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, May 2003.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

OCT image of the anterior segment and the retina. The area in black is part of the vitreous and was not imaged since it does not carry any biometric information. Bottom: the A-line along the central axis is selected and its intensity profile is displayed. Local maxima of the intensity profile are used to determine anatomical boundaries and optical distances.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Change in optical thickness of the aqueous media and the lens of a 35 year-old subject. The plots show the average (dots) and standard deviations (error bars) of 10 separate responses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical thicknesses of the crystalline lens in function of the optical length of the aqueous media for the 35 year-old subject. The slope of the data linear regressions (blue line, 1.038) represents the ratio between the group refractive indices of the lens and the aqueous media.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Group Refractive Index Values

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L=OPLACnAQ+OPLLnL+OPLVnV.
ΔOPLL=nLnAQ(ΔOPLAC+ΔOPLV).

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