Abstract

A figure of merit (FOM) for frequency-domain diffusive imaging (FDDI) is theoretically developed adapting the concept of Hotelling observer signal-to-noise ratio. Different from conventionally used FOMs for FDDI, the newly developed FOM considers diffused intensities, modulation amplitudes, and phases in combination. The FOM applied to Monte Carlo simulations of signal- and background-known-exactly problems shows unique characteristics that are in agreement with findings in the literature. We believe that a task based assessment using the FOM improves the characterization of FDDI systems and allows for complete system optimization.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. K. Kim, U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Opt. Express 16, 18082 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, Opt. Express 19, 12261 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, 2004).
  7. D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 016010 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 015002 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Express 10, 159 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Xu, D. Piao, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, Appl. Opt. 49, 3059 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 016010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 015002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, Appl. Opt. 49, 3059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Kim, U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Opt. Express 16, 18082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, 2004).

Barth, R. J.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beuthan, J.

H. K. Kim, U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Opt. Express 16, 18082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Bunting, C. F.

Chance, B.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

Dehghani, H.

DeWeert, M. H.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

diFlorio-Alexander, R. M.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Elkins, W. P.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

H. K. Kim, U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Opt. Express 16, 18082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 016010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 015002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, Opt. Express 19, 12261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, P. A.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Kupinski, M. A.

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 015002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 016010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, Opt. Express 19, 12261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moran, S. E.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, 2004).

Nets, U. J.

H. K. Kim, U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Opt. Express 16, 18082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piao, D.

Pogue, B. W.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J. J.

Strittmatter, R. L.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulich, B. L.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 016010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang and M. A. Kupinski, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 015002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

J. Wang, S. Jiang, Z. Li, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 37, 3715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. H. DeWeert, Proc. SPIE 3173, 430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Nets, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hotelling observer SNRs calculated from (a) A and (b) φ are shown for absorbing [μa(s)] and scattering [μs(s)] small abnormalities in the uniform background tissue of μs=5mm1 and μa=0.005mm1. The units for μa(s) and μs(s) are mm1, and NF indicates a noise factor of an photon amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Signal detectability from the ideal observer SNR for (a) absorbing and (b) scattering abnormalities embedded in the uniform background of μs=5mm1 and μa=0.005mm1. The x axes indicate fm in the units of MHz. Left and right y-axes on each plot are for open and solid circles, respectively.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNRH2=Δg¯tK1Δg¯,
g⃗=(DCX⃗RX⃗I)andK=(KDCKDC,XRKDC,XIKXR,DCKXRKXR,XIKXI,DCKXI,XRKXI),
i(t)=qβmap(t)andKi(t,t)=q2βc2σp2(t)δ(tt),
ap(t)=aDC+aACexp[j(Δωt+ψ)]
σp2(t)=σDC2+σAC2exp[j(Δωt+ψ)].
KDC=q2βc2TσDC2,KXR=KXI=q2βc2TσDC2/2,KDC,XR=q2βc2TσAC2cosψ,KDC,XI=q2βc2TσAC2sinψ,andKXR,XI=KXI,XR=0.
K1=(KAKBKCKBTKDKEKCTKETKF),
σDC2q2βc2T(σDC42σAC4),2σAC2cosψq2βc2T(σDC42σAC4),2σAC2sinψq2βc2T(σDC42σAC4),1q2βc2TσDC2(2+4σAC4cos2ψσDC42σAC4),1q2βc2TσDC2(2+4σAC4sin2ψσDC42σAC4),and4σAC4cosψsinψq2βc2TσDC2(σDC42σAC4),
σDC2aDCp(c0k¯nI)2[NF+1+12g=1mg2]
σAC2aACp(c0k¯nI)22[m1(NF+2)+oddgmgmg+1],

Metrics