Abstract

We report on controllable production of nanostructures embedded in a porous glass by femtosecond laser direct writing. We show that a hollow nanovoid with a lateral size of 40nm and an axial size of 1500nm can be achieved by manipulating the peak intensity and polarization of the writing laser beam. Our finding enables applications ranging from direct construction of 3D nanofluidics in glass to clean stealth dicing of transparent plates.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 353 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, Anal. Chem. 77, 5083 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atsumi, K.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukumitsu, K.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbrink, E. F.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, Anal. Chem. 77, 5083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, Anal. Chem. 77, 5083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ke, K.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, Anal. Chem. 77, 5083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyhofer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, E.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, R.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, N.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 35, 3225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, Anal. Chem. 77, 5083 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. (1)

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20, 259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Lab Chip 12, 746 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Lab Chip 12, 3576 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of inducing nanograting structures inside porous glass by femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top view of hollow nanograting structures induced by femtosecond laser direct writing with different polarization directions. The laser incident direction (k), polarization (E), and writing direction (S) are indicated in each panel. The intersecting angles between E and S are 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. Translation speed in (a) and (b) is 20μm/s. Translation speed in (c) is 50μm/s. Pulse energy is 80 nJ for all three figures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution from nanovoid array to single nanovoid with decreasing laser intensity. The laser incident direction (k), polarization (E), and writing direction (S) are indicated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Cross section view and (b) top view SEM images of a single nanofluidic channel written in the porous glass. Scar bar=300nm. (c) Fluorescence microscope image of the postannealed nanochannels filled with a fluorescent dye.

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