Abstract

We report on the direct writing of waveguide structures using an axicon lens to focus a 40 fs laser pulse within BK7 glass. The written structures are characterized for waveguiding action: waveguiding action for 635 and 1550 nm light and propagation loss as low as 0.19dB/cm is measured. Loss values decrease with laser exposure time for incident energy of 300 μJ, indicating enhancement of index contrast. At higher energies, a reverse trend is obtained: higher loss values are obtained as index contrast degrades with an increase in exposure time.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Express 18, 566 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhuyan, M. K.

Chalapathi, K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chandrakanta Singh, P.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

Dhaman, R. K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dota, K.

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furfaro, L.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacquot, M.

Lacourt, P.-A.

Lotti, A.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mallik, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, N.

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, D. G.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, A.

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polesana, P.

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, E.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamosauskas, G.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, A.

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Zambon, V.

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. Chandrakanta Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, Opt. Commun. 284, 630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. Faccio, E. Rubino, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, D. G. Papazoglou, and A. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Dota, A. Pathak, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Polesana, M. Franco, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Zambon, N. McCarthy, and M. Piché, Proc. SPIE 7099, 70992J (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for writing waveguide structures using an axicon lens. Typical image of the transmitted beam is also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope images of the cross section of the waveguides written at two energies and three exposure times.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Waveguide spots at 635 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Waveguidance at 1550 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity profiles of guided spots.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Propagation Losses in BK7 Glass

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