Abstract

We use balanced homodyne detection to characterize light from a diode laser as it crosses the threshold. We measure the single-time second-order correlation function g(2), and also extract the photon number distribution. Just above the laser threshold, we find that the measured g(2) exceeds the prediction of the semiclassical single-mode laser model. From the reconstructed photon number distributions, we conclude that this excess is due to emission from nonlasing modes. For higher pumping current, the light noise increases due to a different mechanism, possibly mode competition or mode partition noise.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2009

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 47 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. A. Abate, H. J. Kimble, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. A 14, 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967

F. Arecchi, G. Rodari, and A. Sona, Phys. Lett. A 25, 59 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

A. W. Smith and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1169 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

G. Lachs, Phys. Rev. 138, B1012 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abate, J. A.

J. A. Abate, H. J. Kimble, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. A 14, 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F.

F. Arecchi, G. Rodari, and A. Sona, Phys. Lett. A 25, 59 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

A. W. Smith and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1169 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boggavarapu, D.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boisen, A.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals (Springer, 1999).

Craig, R.

Davis, W.

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Faridani, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

Grosse, N. B.

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Kimble, H. J.

J. A. Abate, H. J. Kimble, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. A 14, 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kjærgaard, N.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals (Springer, 1999).

Koschorreck, M.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kubasik, M.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lachs, G.

G. Lachs, Phys. Rev. 138, B1012 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lax, M.

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

J. A. Abate, H. J. Kimble, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. A 14, 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge, 1995), § 18.3.

McAlister, D. F.

D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, D.

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 47 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. H.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munroe, M.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohzu, H.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, C. J.

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pike, E. R.

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J.-P.

Polzik, E. S.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, O.

Rodari, G.

F. Arecchi, G. Rodari, and A. Sona, Phys. Lett. A 25, 59 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 47 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schleich, W. P.

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

Scully, M. O.

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. W.

A. W. Smith and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1169 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sona, A.

F. Arecchi, G. Rodari, and A. Sona, Phys. Lett. A 25, 59 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

Stobinnska, M.

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Symul, T.

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Windpassinger, P. J.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge, 1995), § 18.3.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 47 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zwanziger, M.

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 47 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. A

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, M. Lax, and M. Zwanziger, J. Phys. A 3, L52 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

P. J. Windpassinger, M. Kubasik, M. Koschorreck, A. Boisen, N. Kjærgaard, E. S. Polzik, and J. H. Müller, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 055301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

F. Arecchi, G. Rodari, and A. Sona, Phys. Lett. A 25, 59 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

G. Lachs, Phys. Rev. 138, B1012 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Abate, H. J. Kimble, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. A 14, 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. W. Smith and J. A. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1169 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Grosse, T. Symul, M. Stobinnska, T. C. Ralph, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Lamb, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully, and C. H. Townes, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S263 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge, 1995), § 18.3.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals (Springer, 1999).

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