Abstract

We present a terahertz (THz) imaging technique based on attenuated internal reflection, which is ideally suited for the analysis of liquid and biological samples. Inserted in a THz time-domain system, and using a high-resistivity low loss silicon prism to couple the THz wave into the sample, the detection scheme is based on the relative differential spectral phase of two orthogonal polarizations. Biological sample imaging as well as subwavelength (λ/16) longitudinal resolution are demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2009

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

W. L. Chan, J. A. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Masson and G. Gallot, Opt. Express 14, 11566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. M. A. Azzam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ronne, P. O. Astrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1984

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, and N. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Astrand, P. O.

C. Ronne, P. O. Astrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, and N. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Blanchard, F.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Cambridge University, 1997).

Bowden, B.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burghardt, T. P.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, and N. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. A. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Deibel, J. A.

W. L. Chan, J. A. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doi, A.

Gallot, G.

Grischkowsky, D.

Harrick, N. J.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy(John Wiley & Sons, 1967).

Harrington, J. A.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirori, H.

Hochrein, T.

Hu, B. B.

Jansen, C.

Jördens, C.

Kadoya, Y.

Keiding, S. R.

C. Ronne, P. O. Astrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Krumbholz, N.

Mark, P. R.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masson, J. B.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Masson and G. Gallot, Opt. Express 14, 11566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

W. L. Chan, J. A. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

H. Hirori, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Opt. Express 13, 10801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Peters, O.

Podzorov, A.

Ronne, C.

C. Ronne, P. O. Astrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M.

Sauviat, M. P.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

Tan, T.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, K.

Tanaka, T.

Thompson, N. L.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, and N. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

Wietzke, S.

Wojdyla, A.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Cambridge University, 1997).

Yamashita, K.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, and N. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Hirori, K. Yamashita, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Ronne, P. O. Astrand, and S. R. Keiding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

W. L. Chan, J. A. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy(John Wiley & Sons, 1967).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Cambridge University, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental THz-TDS setup with complete polarization characterization (top), including AIRTI system (bottom).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Differential spectral phase image at 1 THz of an aluminum cross (500 μm-large, 1 mm-deep, solid black lines). α=42°. Color bar unit is degree. Top graph is a cross-section (white horizontal line) with experimental data (dots) and Gaussian convolution fit (solid).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dephasing of an aluminum plate versus spacing from AIRTI prism (dots), with theoretical calculation (black curve) and exponential fit (red curve) with d=19±2μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Image of a water drop and (b) image of a frog sciatic axone. Color bars represent the differential phase in degree.

Equations (1)

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d=c2πνn12sin2αn22,

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