Abstract

The effective medium approximation is used to determine the optical constants of novel silver (Ag)/indium-tin oxide (ITO) multilayer nanopillar structures within the 300–800 nm wavelength range. The structures are modeled as inclusions in air with the pillar volume fraction at 42.4%, agreeing with SEM images of the sample. The simulated reflection intensity of the nanopillars is much less than that of the planar reference sample and is a result of the small difference between the refractive index of the top effective medium layer and that of air. Furthermore, the minimum in the reflection at around 450 nm in the nanostructured sample is evidence of surface plasmon enhancement, indicating suitability for plasmonic applications. The simulated Brewster angle decreases in the pillar region, which is an indication of smaller effective refractive index.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and L. Zhang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 157 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhawan, M. Canva, and T. V. Dinh, Opt. Express 19,787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Pai, Y. C. Lin, J. L. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, Opt. Express 19, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Araci, E.

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berry, J. J.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Capezzuto, P.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Cei, W.

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Rosa, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, A.

Dinh, T. V.

Duong, B.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

En Naciri, A.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Gangopadhyay, P.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Gennett, T.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giangregorio, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilliot, M.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grob, J. J.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johann, L.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khosroabadi, A. A.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-C.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Pai, Y. C. Lin, J. L. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, Opt. Express 19, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-J.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Lin, Y. H.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-J.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meng, F. S.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muller, D.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. V.

Nerbo, I. S.

I. S. Nerbo, Real-time study of the formation of GaSb nanopillars by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry, Ph.D. thesis, NTNU, (2011).

Norwood, R. A.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Oatess, T. W. H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y. H.

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santbergen, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Shalaev, V.

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Sigdel, A. K.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smets, A. H. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoquert, J. P.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Temple, T. L.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-S.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. L.

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Ph.D. thesis, UMI Microform 1460825, (2009).

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zia, R.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Semilab’s Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Analyzer (SEA) software, user’s manual, page 41.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

W. S. Rasband, 2007. Image J. U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/index.html (Accessed Aug. 2013).

I. S. Nerbo, Real-time study of the formation of GaSb nanopillars by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry, Ph.D. thesis, NTNU, (2011).

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

X. Wang, Ph.D. thesis, UMI Microform 1460825, (2009).

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

S. Kawata, M. Ohtsu, and M. Irie, eds., Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (Springer, 2001).

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