Abstract

The effective medium approximation is used to determine the optical constants of novel silver (Ag)/indium-tin oxide (ITO) multilayer nanopillar structures within the 300–800 nm wavelength range. The structures are modeled as inclusions in air with the pillar volume fraction at 42.4%, agreeing with SEM images of the sample. The simulated reflection intensity of the nanopillars is much less than that of the planar reference sample and is a result of the small difference between the refractive index of the top effective medium layer and that of air. Furthermore, the minimum in the reflection at around 450 nm in the nanostructured sample is evidence of surface plasmon enhancement, indicating suitability for plasmonic applications. The simulated Brewster angle decreases in the pillar region, which is an indication of smaller effective refractive index.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Akram A. Khosroabadi, Palash Gangopadhyay, Byron Cocilovo, Laszlo Makai, Peter Basa, Binh Duong, Jayan Thomas, and Robert A. Norwood, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry on metal and metal-oxide multilayer hybrid plasmonic nanostructures: erratum," Opt. Lett. 39, 2810-2810 (2014)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-39-9-2810

References

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2013

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and L. Zhang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 157 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhawan, M. Canva, and T. V. Dinh, Opt. Express 19,787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Pai, Y. C. Lin, J. L. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, Opt. Express 19, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Araci, E.

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berry, J. J.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Capezzuto, P.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Cei, W.

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Rosa, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, A.

Dinh, T. V.

Duong, B.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

En Naciri, A.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Gangopadhyay, P.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Gennett, T.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giangregorio, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilliot, M.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grob, J. J.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johann, L.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khosroabadi, A. A.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-C.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Pai, Y. C. Lin, J. L. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, Opt. Express 19, 1680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-J.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Lin, Y. H.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-J.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meng, F. S.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muller, D.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. V.

Nerbo, I. S.

I. S. Nerbo, Real-time study of the formation of GaSb nanopillars by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry, Ph.D. thesis, NTNU, (2011).

Norwood, R. A.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

Oatess, T. W. H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y. H.

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santbergen, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Shalaev, V.

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Sigdel, A. K.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smets, A. H. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoquert, J. P.

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Temple, T. L.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-S.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. L.

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Ph.D. thesis, UMI Microform 1460825, (2009).

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zia, R.

Adv. Mater.

J. Thomas, P. Gangopadhyay, E. Araci, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Mater. 23, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Am. J. Phys.

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J.-Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. S. Meng, Y. H. Lin, and G. R. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, J. Opt. 14, 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

M. Losurdo, M. Giangregorio, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, and R. de Rosa, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Gilliot, A. En Naciri, L. Johann, J. P. Stoquert, J. J. Grob, and D. Muller, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, B. Duong, J. Thomas, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, T. Gennett, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 831 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci.

T. W. H. Oatess, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 328 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

K.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-J. Lu, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 5339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. A. Synowicki, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

Semilab’s Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Analyzer (SEA) software, user’s manual, page 41.

A. A. Khosroabadi, P. Gangopadhyay, and R. A. Norwood, “Hybrid plasmonic nanostructured core–shell electrodes,” Nano Lett., submitted for publication.

S. Kawata, M. Ohtsu, and M. Irie, eds., Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (Springer, 2001).

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

I. S. Nerbo, Real-time study of the formation of GaSb nanopillars by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry, Ph.D. thesis, NTNU, (2011).

W. Cei and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2010).

X. Wang, Ph.D. thesis, UMI Microform 1460825, (2009).

W. S. Rasband, 2007. Image J. U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/index.html (Accessed Aug. 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top view and (b) side view SEM images of Sample B (inset left: schematic of Sample B [PAN/ITO/Ag (11.8 nm)/ITO (72.8 nm) from the fit; inset right: different layers in the fitting procedure for sample B)].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Calculated and measured cosΔ and tanΨ of Sample B at angle of incidence (AOI) of 75.03 deg. (b) Refractive index and extinction coefficient of the top layer in Samples A (nplanar, kplanar) and B (n, k).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of mixed ITO/Ag layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulated and experimental reflectance spectra for Sample A for 7.2° AOI. (b) Simulated reflectance spectra of Sample A for p and s polarized light at 75.03° incidence angle. (c) Simulated reflectance spectra of Sample A for p and s polarized light versus incidence angle at λ=0.35μm and correspondingly for Sample B in (d), (e), and (f).

Equations (7)

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Re(ε)=(EPE)21+(ErE)2andIm(ε)=ErE(EPE)21+(ErE)2,
ReεE=ΛE02(E02E2)(E02E2)2+Γ2E2,ImεE=ΛE02ΓE(E02E2)2+Γ2E2.
α=4πε0abc(εsεh)3εh+3Li(εsεh),
εeffεITOεeff+2εITO=fAg3εAgεITOεITO+Li(εAgεITO),
εeff1εeff+2=εvoid1εvoid+2fvoid+εITO1εITO+2(1fvoid),
fvoid=1(εeff1εeff+2)/(εITO1εITO+2).
N=4π2m*ε0Ep2h2e2.

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