Abstract

We propose a cross-correlation-based method to measure blood-flow velocity by using photoacoustic microscopy. Unlike in previous autocorrelation-based methods, the measured flow velocity here is independent of particle size. Thus an absolute flow velocity can be obtained without calibration. We first measured the flow velocity ex vivo, using defibrinated bovine blood. Then flow velocities in vessels with different structures in a mouse ear were quantified in vivo. We further measured the flow variation in the same vessel and at a vessel bifurcation. All the experimental results indicate that our method can be used to accurately quantify blood velocity in vivo.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, W. Liu, and H. F. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 203501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, A. Winkler, L. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Li, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2683 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Z. Xie, S. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 9027 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brunker, J.

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. M.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P. L.

Chen, S.

Chen, S.-L.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-W.

Jiao, S.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuai, D.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, A. Winkler, L. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Li, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2683 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, A. Winkler, L. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Li, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2683 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

Ling, T.

Liu, T.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Song, W. Liu, and H. F. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 203501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

Maslov, K. I.

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Song, W.

W. Song, W. Liu, and H. F. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 203501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taber, L. A.

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Shi, L. A. Taber, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 1419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wei, Q.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, A.

Won Baac, H.

Xia, Y.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

W. Song, W. Liu, and H. F. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 203501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, A. Winkler, L. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Li, and L. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2683 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 2407 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163702 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, S. Yang, and D. Xing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 023702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, W. Liu, and H. F. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 203501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Brunker and P. Beard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 076003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, Y. Zhou, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 096004 (2013).

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Two laser beams (red and black arrows) alternately illuminate the measurement area of a blood vessel. The axes of the two beams are separated by distance d. (b) The slow-time PA profiles from Av and Bv are shifted in time by Δt.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System schematic, not to scale. AMP, signal amplifiers and filters; DAQ, data acquisition system; DMD, digital micromirror device; L1-L2, lenses; M1-M2, mirrors; OL1, objective lens (Mitutoyo, M PLAN APO 10×/0.28); OL2, objective lens (Olympus, LUCPlanFLN 40×/0.60); UT, ultrasound transducer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transverse flow velocities of defibrinated bovine blood versus preset values. Inset figures show time courses of slow-time PA profiles from Av (red line) and Bv (black-dashed line) in (a) at two selected flow velocities: v=2.25mm/s and v=13.5mm/s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In vivo blood flow measurements in vessels with different structures. Black crosses denote locations of the two measurement spots. Red arrows denote the flow direction. PA images of (a) a loop vessel; (b) a straight vessel; and (c) a vessel bifurcation. (d)–(f) Time courses of slow-time PA profiles from Av and Bv in (a)–(c), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement of flow changes in a curved vessel. (a) PA image of the vessel. Black crosses denote the locations of the monitoring spots. Red arrow denotes the flow direction. Time courses of slow-time PA profiles from (b) Av1 and Bv1, (c) Av2 and Bv2 in (a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Observation of feature conservation in a vessel bifurcation. (a) PA image of a vessel bifurcation. Black crosses denote locations of the monitoring spots. Red arrows denote the flow directions. Time courses of slow-time PA profiles from (b) Av1 and Bv1; (c) Av2 and Bv2; (d) Av3 and Bv3 in (a). The duration of the valley was (b) t1, (c) t2, and (d) t3.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Flow Velocity Measurements in Vessels with Different Structures, as Shown in Fig. 4

Tables Icon

Table 2. Flow Velocity Measurements in a Single Vessel, as Shown in Fig. 5

Tables Icon

Table 3. Flow Velocity Measurements in a Vessel Bifurcation, as Shown in Fig. 6

Equations (1)

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v=dΔtsinθ,

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