Abstract

Imaging polarimetry is emerging as a powerful tool for remote sensing in space science, Earth science, biology, defense, national security, and industry. Polarimetry provides complementary information about a scene in the visible and infrared wavelengths. For example, surface texture, material composition, and molecular structure will affect the polarization state of reflected, scattered, or emitted light. We demonstrate an imaging polarimeter design that uses three Wollaston prisms, addressing several technical challenges associated with moving remote-sensing platforms. This compact design has no moving polarization elements and separates the polarization components in the pupil (or Fourier) plane, analogous to the way a grating spectrometer works. In addition, this concept enables simultaneous characterization of unpolarized, linear, and circular components of optical polarization. The results from a visible-wavelength prototype of this imaging polarimeter are presented, demonstrating remote sensitivity to material properties. This work enables new remote sensing capabilities and provides a viable design concept for extensions into infrared wavelengths.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Roberts, T. H. Chiou, N. J. Marshall, and T. W. Cronin, Nat. Photonics 3, 641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Oliva, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 123, 589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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1984

1973

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H. I. Smith, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 928 (1965).
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Aubreton, O.

Ballester, G. E.

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
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S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
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Berdyugina, S. V.

S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bommier, V.

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Chen, F.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
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Chipman, R. A.

Coniglio, N.

Cronin, T. W.

N. W. Roberts, T. H. Chiou, N. J. Marshall, and T. W. Cronin, Nat. Photonics 3, 641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DasSarma, P.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DasSarma, S.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, M. J.

Felton, M.

Fluri, D. M.

S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Germer, T. A.

W. Sparks, T. A. Germer, J. W. MacKenty, and F. Snik, Appl. Opt. 51, 5495 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
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Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gori, F.

Gurton, K. P.

Harris, W.

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

Hough, J. H.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jossang, J.

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolokolova, L.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macchetto, F. D.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacKenty, J. W.

Manset, N.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, N. J.

N. W. Roberts, T. H. Chiou, N. J. Marshall, and T. W. Cronin, Nat. Photonics 3, 641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, A.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oliva, E.

E. Oliva, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 123, 589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pellicori, S. F.

Piirola, V.

S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, I. N.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robb, F. T.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, N. W.

N. W. Roberts, T. H. Chiou, N. J. Marshall, and T. W. Cronin, Nat. Photonics 3, 641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F.

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, E. E.

Shaw, J. A.

Smith, H. I.

H. I. Smith, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 928 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Snik, F.

Sparks, W.

Sparks, W. B.

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Watts, L. A.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Worthing, A. G.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

E. Oliva, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 123, 589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

S. V. Berdyugina, A. V. Berdyugin, D. M. Fluri, and V. Piirola, Astrophys. J. 673, L83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

L. Ben-Jaffel, W. Harris, V. Bommier, F. Roesler, G. E. Ballester, and J. Jossang, Icarus 178, 297 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

H. I. Smith, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 928 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

W. B. Sparks, J. H. Hough, L. Kolokolova, T. A. Germer, F. Chen, S. DasSarma, P. DasSarma, F. T. Robb, N. Manset, I. N. Reid, F. D. Macchetto, and W. Martin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

N. W. Roberts, T. H. Chiou, N. J. Marshall, and T. W. Cronin, Nat. Photonics 3, 641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the triple-Wollaston polarimeter. An image from lens L1 is projected onto the entrance slit SL1, with the image-direction coming out of the page. The entrance slit is placed at the front-focal plane of lens L2, collimating the light. The Wollaston-prism assembly (WA) induces a small angular displacement (i.e., rotation of k⃗) that depends on the polarization state, and the wedges separate the outputs. The projections of linear (0°, 90°, 45°, 135°), right- (RHC), and left-hand-circular (LHC) polarizations are re-imaged onto the focal-plane array (FPA) by lens L3. A two-dimensional image of the complete polarization state (Stokes vector) is acquired by scanning the image across SL1 in the x direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Details of WA referenced in Fig. 1. The assembly consists of birefringent uniaxial-crystal wedges (white) grouped into prism pairs W1, W2, W3, along with a zero-order QWP (gray). The principal axis of the QWP is oriented at 45° with respect to the axes of W2, the principal axes of W1 and W3 are displaced by 45°, and all principal axes are within the xy plane. The angular deviation between orthogonal pairs of polarization states is determined by β, while θ determines the separation between the outputs of each prism pair.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Demonstration of triple Wollaston-prism WA operation. The images show the response of the system to a point source when varying the linear polarization angle (left) and ellipticity (right). The FPA images are arranged to show the polarization projections along columns and the input polarization state along the rows. The upper-left image shows the system response when WA is removed. Some defocus was introduced in order to increase the spot-size and minimize pixel boundary effects. The lack of signal in the projections orthogonal to the input state indicates exceptional crosstalk performance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization image (cropped) of a tilted stainless-steel razor blade partially covered with vinyl tape. The razor blade is illuminated and viewed by the polarimeter at approximately 45° incidence angle. In both the composite (left) and normalized Stokes magnitude (right) images one can see that the s3 component has almost completely vanished for the vinyl tape. This is a clear demonstration of material discrimination between conductive and nonconductive materials.

Equations (1)

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S=[s0s1s2s3][I0+I90I0I90I45I135ILHCIRHC].

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