Abstract

We propose and characterize a simple, integrable, and wavelength-preserving scheme able to groom a 40 Gbps (D)QPSK signal with a 20 Gbps OOK one into a 20 Gbaud (60 Gbps) 8-APSK signal. The proposed all-optical scheme is based on the second-order nonlinear signal-depletion effect in a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Performance of the device, characterized by means of BER measurements, attests error-free operation and a power penalty below 4.1 dB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G.-W. Lu and T. Miyazaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1995 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 150 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.
  5. B. Teipen and M. H. Eiselt, in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks (IEEE, 2010), paper 22.
  6. S. Radic, Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 18, 670 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Pinna, A. Malacarne, and A. Bogoni, Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/Photonics in Switching (2013), paper Mo1-1.
  8. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), Chaps. 1–2.
  9. I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. R. Nuccio, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1829 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2008

G.-W. Lu and T. Miyazaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. R. Nuccio, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pinna, A. Malacarne, and A. Bogoni, Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/Photonics in Switching (2013), paper Mo1-1.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), Chaps. 1–2.

Carbone, F.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eiselt, M. H.

B. Teipen and M. H. Eiselt, in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks (IEEE, 2010), paper 22.

Hasegawa, C.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayase, S.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.

Kikuchi, N.

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.-W.

G.-W. Lu and T. Miyazaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malacarne, A.

S. Pinna, A. Malacarne, and A. Bogoni, Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/Photonics in Switching (2013), paper Mo1-1.

Mandai, K.

Miyazaki, T.

G.-W. Lu and T. Miyazaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S. R.

Pinna, S.

S. Pinna, A. Malacarne, and A. Bogoni, Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/Photonics in Switching (2013), paper Mo1-1.

Radic, S.

S. Radic, Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 18, 670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, W.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.

Sasaki, S.

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, K.

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, and S. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbay, M.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.

Socci, L.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, T.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teipen, B.

B. Teipen and M. H. Eiselt, in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks (IEEE, 2010), paper 22.

Tokle, T.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.

Willner, A. E.

Wu, X.

Electron. Lett.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, and T. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 41, 7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G.-W. Lu and T. Miyazaki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.

S. Radic, Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 18, 670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Pinna, A. Malacarne, and A. Bogoni, Proceedings of the OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/Photonics in Switching (2013), paper Mo1-1.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), Chaps. 1–2.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, and W. Rosenkranz, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThL2.

B. Teipen and M. H. Eiselt, in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks (IEEE, 2010), paper 22.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nonlinear interaction scheme (blue: input spectra; red: output spectra).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity of (from the top) the (a) DQPSK, OOK, and 8-APSK signals; (b) 8-APSK constellation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measurements and (b) simulation results of the obtained 8-APSK ER versus the DQPSK input power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PPLN input and output spectra.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Input and output eye diagrams.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated plots of the DQPSK balanced reception for three values of the 8-APSK ER.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bit error rate measurements for various values of the output intensity ER for (a) OOK and (b) DQPSK signal.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Required OSNR to achieve BER=109 versus ER.

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