Abstract

Efficient inscription of Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in single-mode, thin cladding As2S3 fibers is demonstrated by using near bandgap light at 532 nm. The FBGs with the reflectivity of over 80% can be induced in only 80–90 s, substantially faster than in previous reports. The dynamics of the grating growth are investigated in the photosensitivity process, showing a fast blue shift of the Bragg wavelength and then a somewhat slower red shift. The aging of the grating after fabrication is also reported, indicating a 37% decay of the grating strength.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
  2. L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, H. S. Lin, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Appl. Opt. 48, 6442 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Luan, E. Magi, T. Gong, I. V. Kabakova, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 4761 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Ahmad, C. Baker, and M. Rochette, Opt. Lett. 36, 2886 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 38, 127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

F. Luan, E. Magi, T. Gong, I. V. Kabakova, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 36, 4761 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad, C. Baker, and M. Rochette, Opt. Lett. 36, 2886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, H. S. Lin, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Appl. Opt. 48, 6442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adarsh, K. V.

Aggarwal, I.

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

I. V. Kabakova, L. E. Zou, G. A. Brawley, C. Florea, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 51, 7333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R.

Asatryan, K.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Barik, A. R.

Bernier, M.

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 38, 127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, M. El-Amraoui, J. F. Couillard, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 37, 3900 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brawley, G. A.

I. V. Kabakova, L. E. Zou, G. A. Brawley, C. Florea, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 51, 7333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L.

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Caron, N.

Cathelinaud, M.

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. X.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, H. S. Lin, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, Appl. Opt. 48, 6442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couillard, J. F.

Dianov, E. M.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, M.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Amraoui, M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kabakova, L. E. Zou, G. A. Brawley, C. Florea, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 51, 7333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, V.

Fu, L. B.

Galstian, T.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gnusin, P. I.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

Hamanaka, H.

Hewak, D.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iso, M.

Jain, H.

Kabakova, I. V.

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khan, P.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lee, T.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lequime, M.

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Lin, H. S.

Liu, X.

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lotnichenko, V. G.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Magi, E.

Mägi, E. C.

Medvedkov, O. I.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, M. A.

M. A. Popescu, NonCrystalline Chalcogenides (Springer, 2000).

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Rochette, M.

Sanghera, J.

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

I. V. Kabakova, L. E. Zou, G. A. Brawley, C. Florea, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, E. C. Mägi, E. Li, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Opt. 51, 7333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sangunni, K. S.

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, B.

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 38, 127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, M. El-Amraoui, J. F. Couillard, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 37, 3900 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vasil’ev, S. A.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinod, E. M.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D. I.

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. F.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, L. E.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Wang, M. Ding, T. Lee, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, D. Hewak, G. Brambilla, and G. Farrell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 131110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, and Y. F. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, Electron. Lett. 32, 1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 44, 846 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, Opt. Commun. 281, 3726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (2)

C. Florea, J. S. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 31, 942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, L. Busse, J. Sanghera, B. Shaw, and I. Aggarwal, Opt. Mater. 34, 1389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil’ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Lotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, Quantum Electron. 41, 465 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. A. Popescu, NonCrystalline Chalcogenides (Springer, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup for writing gratings in As2S3 fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of Bragg grating in As2S3 fibers with cladding diameter of (a) 170 μm, (b) 136 μm, and (c) 90 μm, corresponding the exposure time of 60, 80, and 90 s, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of Bragg grating during exposure in the 3.7/90μm As2S3 fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Notch depth (a) and shift (b) of Bragg wavelength dependence on exposure time in the 3.7/90μm As2S3 fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ΔnAC and ΔnDC changes during exposure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ΔnAC and ΔnDC of Bragg grating at room temperature.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔnAC(t)=λB(t)L(Δλ(t)n¯LλB2(t))21,
ΔnDC(t)=λB(t)λB(t=0)2Λ,

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