Abstract

A new technique to attain tunable parametric amplification in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) through control of chromatic dispersion is proposed and empirically investigated. By infiltrating the air channels of the PCFs with suitable thermo-optic liquids, the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) can be tailored to provide a wider gain spectrum in the mid-IR range and generate blueshifted frequency components. It is deduced that a change of 10–20 nm in the ZDW around the pump creates a gain region several hundred nanometers from the pump wavelength by only varying the temperature of the liquid externally.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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M. Szpulak and S. Fevrier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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2006 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

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1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1958 (1)

Abram, I.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007), p. 397.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bookey, H. T.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

Cole, B. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, I. H.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fevrier, S.

M. Szpulak and S. Fevrier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, B. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hassani, A.

Imajuku, W.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuJ4.

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Knight, J. C.

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

Liu, X.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

Marhic, M.

M. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Cambridge University, 2008), p. 110.

Markos, C.

Miklos, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mossadegh, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pone, E.

Pureza, P. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodney, W. S.

Roselle, D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Suzuki, T.

Szpulak, M.

M. Szpulak and S. Fevrier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuJ4.

Talley, D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vlachos, K.

Wherrett, B. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yannopoulos, S. N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, Fiber Integrated Opt. 19, 251 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Szpulak and S. Fevrier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuJ4.

http://www.cargille.com/mascal.shtml .

M. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Cambridge University, 2008), p. 110.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007), p. 397.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dispersion characteristics of As2S3 PCFs. PCF-A shows greater potential for parametric amplification as it possesses very high nonlinearity and better dispersion characteristics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Temperature-dependent ZDW and (b) spectral variation of fiber nonlinearity γ of both fibers, PCF-A and PCF-B. PCF-A exhibits higher nonlinearity compared to PCF-B, allowing a smaller length of fiber to be used.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Parametric gain spectrum in a 10 cm length of PCF-A_ZDW-I (d/Λ=0.9, Λ=1.0μm, ZDW1=1.6μm) when pumped with 2 W of input cw power at 1586 nm wavelength. (b) Corresponding linear phase matching characteristics at different temperatures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Parametric gain spectrum in a 10 cm length of PCF-A_ZDW-II (d/Λ=0.9, Λ=1.0μm, ZDW2=2.76μm) when pumped with 2 W of input cw power at 2781 nm wavelength. (b) Corresponding linear phase matching characteristics at different temperatures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Parametric gain spectrum in a 50 cm length of PCF-B fiber (d/Λ=0.73, Λ=4.0μm, ZDW=2.94μm) when pumped with 2 W of input cw power at 2925 nm wavelength. (b) Corresponding linear phase matching characteristics.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of PCFs

Equations (4)

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Gs=1+(γPg)2sinh2(gL),
g=(γP)2κ24,whereκ=Δβ+2γP.
Δβ=βs+βi2βp,
Δβ=β2p(Δωs)2+β4p12(Δωs)4,

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