Abstract

We captured stable self-oscillations of a toroidal bubble moving away from a laser propelled cavity object in water using a high-speed imaging system. The entire laser propelling process generates a hemispherical bubble, two toroidal bubbles, and a microbubble cluster. The hemispherical bubble is formed by laser breakdown in water. The toroidal bubbles are formed by the variation of the pressure field as a result of the propagation, reflection, and convergence of the laser plasma shockwave in the cavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 34(200), 94 (1917).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Ben-Dor, Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

2013 (1)

D. Kleckner and W. T. M. Irvine, Nat. Phys. 9, 253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Pearson, J. R. Blake, and S. R. Otto, J. Eng. Math. 48, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

O. Lindau and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 479, 327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 34(200), 94 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Aglyamov, S. R.

Aguilar, G.

Akiyama, H.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M. R.

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Dor, G.

G. Ben-Dor, Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

Ben-Yakar, A.

Blake, J. R.

A. Pearson, J. R. Blake, and S. R. Otto, J. Eng. Math. 48, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, F.

Brayman, A. A.

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brujan, E. A.

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Lopez, S.

Campbell, P.

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H.-Y.

Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuschieri, A.

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S. Y.

Evans, R.

Gac, S. L.

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gregorcic, P.

P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. H. R.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I, L.

Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. T. M.

D. Kleckner and W. T. M. Irvine, Nat. Phys. 9, 253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karpiouk, A. B.

Katsuki, S.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keen, G. S.

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, B. C.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klaseboer, E.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner and W. T. M. Irvine, Nat. Phys. 9, 253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kreider, W.

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

O. Lindau and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 479, 327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.-B.

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. Y.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindau, O.

O. Lindau and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 479, 327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukyanchuk, B.

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matula, T. J.

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Možina, J.

P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.-W.

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohl, C.-D.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, Y.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oshita, D.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Otto, S. R.

A. Pearson, J. R. Blake, and S. R. Otto, J. Eng. Math. 48, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.-X.

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A.

A. Pearson, J. R. Blake, and S. R. Otto, J. Eng. Math. 48, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Gutierrez, F. G.

Petkovšek, R.

P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, A.

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prausnitz, M.

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prentice, P.

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quinto-Su, P. A.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 34(200), 94 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Sakugawa, T.

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.-H.

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. D.

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, K.

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y.-L.

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zwaan, E.

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

D. Oshita, S. H. R. Hosseini, Y. Okuda, Y. Miyamoto, T. Sakugawa, S. Katsuki, and H. Akiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 2395 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Chen, B. Han, B.-B. Li, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gregorčič, R. Petkovšek, and J. Možina, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 094904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Song, M. H. Hong, B. Lukyanchuk, and T. C. Chong, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2952 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Math. (1)

A. Pearson, J. R. Blake, and S. R. Otto, J. Eng. Math. 48, 391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (2)

O. Lindau and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 479, 327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

P. Prentice, A. Cuschieri, K. Dholakia, M. Prausnitz, and P. Campbell, Nat. Phys. 1, 107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleckner and W. T. M. Irvine, Nat. Phys. 9, 253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

B. Han, Y.-X. Pan, Y.-L. Xue, J. Chen, Z.-H. Shen, J. Lu, and X.-W. Ni, Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 34(200), 94 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

E. A. Brujan, G. S. Keen, A. Vogel, and J. R. Blake, Phys. Fluids 14, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

P. A. Quinto-Su, K. Y. Lim, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 80, 047301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Lim, P. A. Quinto-Su, E. Klaseboer, B. C. Khoo, V. Venugopalan, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, and L. I, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zwaan, S. L. Gac, K. Tsuji, and C.-D. Ohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Kreider, A. A. Brayman, M. R. Bailey, and T. J. Matula, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Ben-Dor, Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for underwater laser propulsion. Inset (a) is a photo of the propelled object, including back view and side view. Inset (b) is an image of the object captured by the camera during propulsion. Inset (c) is the cross-sectional schematic of the object. Inset (c) shows geometrical parameters (unit is millimeters) of the object and the focal point of Nd:YAG laser on the object.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Movement and self-oscillations of the toroidal bubble. (a) The direction of camera is along the y axis, and the direction of Nd:YAG laser pulse is along the x axis. (b) The direction of the Nd:YAG laser pulse is also along x axis, while the direction of camera is counterclockwise rotated 15 deg. The x and y axes are shown in Fig. 1. A1 is the first frame, B7 is the last frame, and A7 is followed by B1. The recording time of A1 is 0 μs and the time interval of adjacent images is 250 μs. The frame exposure duration is 4 μs. The laser energy is 39.4 mJ and the laser fluence is 55kJ/m2 for both (a) and (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distances traveled by the object and toroidal bubble varying with time. The 0 point for the distance is the left surface of the object tail before it moves. Red circles represent the distance traveled by the toroidal bubble to the left (x direction). Black squares represent the distance traveled by the target to the right (+x direction).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of the bubbles in the transparent cavity. A hemispherical bubble and two toroidal bubbles are generated in whole process, marked by i, j, and k. C1 is the first frame, D4 is the last frame, and C4 is followed by D1. The recording times of C1–D4 are 0, 40, 140, 375, 610, 845, 1080, and 1315 μs (from the beginning of the first frame). The frame exposure duration is 4 μs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Positive and negative high-pressure contours during propagation of a plasma shockwave in the cavity. To show the positive and negative high-pressure regions clearly in every image with the same color, we use red to present all pressure above 0.18 M pa (the highest pressure in F4) and use blue to present all pressure below 0.11Mpa (the lowest pressure in F4). The time from E1 to F4 is 0.03 to 2.01 μs.

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