Abstract

Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic fluid (MF) and a singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure is proposed. The sensitivity of the proposed sensing system can be enhanced by corroding the cladding of the multimode fiber of the SMS fiber structure. The achieved maximum magnetic field sensitivity of our experimental structures is 16.86pm/Oe as the fiber is corroded for 1680 s. The visibility of the interference dip for the MF-clad SMS fiber structure decreases with corrosion time. Considering the trade-off between sensitivity and visibility, the figure of merit of the sensing system is employed to evaluate the sensing performance comprehensively. In our experiments, the structure corroded for 1620s is found to have maximum sensing performance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Q. Wang and G. Farrell, Opt. Lett. 31, 317 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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Bai, L.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Candiani, A.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Candiani, W. Margulis, C. Sterner, M. Konstantaki, and S. Pissadakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 2548 (2011).
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Chan, C. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
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Chen, L. H.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

Childs, P.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

Ding, H.

Ding, M.

Dong, J.

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Gao, R.

Gao, Z.

Gong, T.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Han, Q.

Hatta, A. M.

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, A. M. Hatta, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, Electron. Lett. 46, 1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.-M.

J.-M. Hsu, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Huang, C.-H. Hung, and P.-Y. Tai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1761 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Hung, C.-H.

J.-M. Hsu, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Huang, C.-H. Hung, and P.-Y. Tai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1761 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

Jiang, H.

Jiang, Y.

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Kumar, A.

Kumar, Y. B. P.

Kuo, F. C.

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, X.

Lee, C.-L.

J.-M. Hsu, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Huang, C.-H. Hung, and P.-Y. Tai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1761 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lew, W. S.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Li, J.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liew, H. F.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Marin, E.

Mehta, R. V.

Meunier, J.-P.

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patel, R.

Peng, S.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June19–21, 2010.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

A. Candiani, W. Margulis, C. Sterner, M. Konstantaki, and S. Pissadakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 2548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S.

H. Ji, S. Pu, X. Wang, and G. Yu, Appl. Opt. 51, 1010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sterner, C.

Sun, X.

Tai, P.-Y.

J.-M. Hsu, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Huang, C.-H. Hung, and P.-Y. Tai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1761 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. M.

Varshney, R. K.

Wang, J.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

Wei, T.

Wong, W. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. M.

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Xia, S.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Xu, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Zhang, F.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June19–21, 2010.

Zu, P.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, F. C. Kuo, S. Y. Yang, H. C. Yang, and J. M. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, A. M. Hatta, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, Electron. Lett. 46, 1129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hsu, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Huang, C.-H. Hung, and P.-Y. Tai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1761 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanosci. (1)

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (1)

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June19–21, 2010.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic pictures of the SMS fiber structures corroded by HF for (a) 0 s, (b) 1500 s, and (c) 1680 s.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup for investigating the sensing properties of the proposed magnetic field sensing method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of different liquids used for the SMS fiber structures corroded for (a) 1500 s, (b) 1590 s, and (c) 1680 s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength shift as a function of RI of the environment surrounding the SMS fiber structures with different degrees of corrosion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra at different magnetic field strengths of the SMS fiber structures corroded for (a) 1620 s, (b) 1650 s, and (c) 1680 s.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength shift as a function of the magnetic field strength for SMS fiber structures corroded for different times.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Sensitivity, visibility, and Q of the SMS fiber structures as functions of corrosion time.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Refractive Indices of Sugar Liquids with Different Concentrations

Equations (1)

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I(λ)=i=1Nηi2·I0(λ)+ij=1Nηi·ηj·I0(λ)·cos(2πΔnL/λ),

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