This study proposes a method for adjusting subwavelength ripple periods and the corresponding double-grating structures formed on fused silica by designing femtosecond laser pulse trains based on localized transient electron density control. Four near-constant period ranges of 190–490 nm of ripples perpendicular to the polarization are obtained by designing pulse trains to excite and modulate the surface plasmon waves. In the period range of 350–490 nm, the double-grating structure is fabricated in one step, which is probably attributable to the grating-assisted enhanced energy deposition and subsequent thermal effects.
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