Abstract

An elliptical monolithic bifocal zone plate as a collimating lens, whose two focal lengths in the orthogonal directions match the different beam waist positions of the fast and slow axes’ light from edge-emitting laser diodes, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by employing femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The high-quality eight-level zone plate exhibits a diffraction efficiency of 92.9%, which is much higher than those ever reported. Shaped by the elliptical lens, the laser diodes’ divergence angles are simultaneously reduced from 65° (1134 mrad, fast axis) and 24° (418 mrad, slow axis) to 7.7 and 136.5 mrad, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

E. Murphy, Nat. Photonics 4, 287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Serkan and H. Kirkici, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. A. Hoffnagle and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Eng. 42, 3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Vaissie, W. Mohammed, and E. G. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 28, 651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

Backlund, J.

Baldacchini, T.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Beckmann, D.

Bengtsson, J.

Brasselet, E.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buividas, R.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Chen, Q.-D.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dickey, F. M.

F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

Fang, H.-H.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, T.

T. Fukushima, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Tokuda, Opt. Rev. 18, 287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Gottmann, J.

Greicius, A.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Hanna, D. C.

He, X. N.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Hoffnagle, J. A.

J. A. Hoffnagle and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Eng. 42, 3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

J. A. Hoffnagle and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Eng. 42, 3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Johnson, E. G.

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelbassa, I.

Kim, R. H.

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirkici, H.

M. Serkan and H. Kirkici, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristjansson, S.

Kudrius, T.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Larsson, A.

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Mahjouri-Samani, M.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Malinauskas, M.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mikutis, M.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Modh, P.

Mohammed, W.

Murphy, E.

E. Murphy, Nat. Photonics 4, 287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L.-G.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, K.

T. Fukushima, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Tokuda, Opt. Rev. 18, 287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D.

Schnitzler, D.

Serkan, M.

M. Serkan and H. Kirkici, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slekys, G.

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Song, J.-F.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

T. Fukushima, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Tokuda, Opt. Rev. 18, 287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vaissie, L.

Wang, R.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 33, 2913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-Z.

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, W.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Yang, D. Y.

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. S.

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Zukauskas, A.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Wu, S.-Z. Wu, L.-G. Niu, Q.-D. Chen, R. Wang, J.-F. Song, H.-H. Fang, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. Serkan and H. Kirkici, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).

Lith. J. Phys. (1)

R. Buividas, M. Mikutis, T. Kudrius, A. Greicius, G. Slekys, and S. Juodkazis, Lith. J. Phys. 52, 301 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Murphy, Nat. Photonics 4, 287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. A. Hoffnagle and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Eng. 42, 3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. M. Dickey, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Fukushima, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Tokuda, Opt. Rev. 18, 287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

K. S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D. Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Theoretical design of the collimating zone-plate lens and divergence angle testing setup. (b) and (c) The schematic diagrams of the focal length and radius calculation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Multilevel zone-plate lenses that were fabricated by FsLDW. (a) Front-view SEM image. (b) Partially enlarged view image. (c) and (d) The theoretical intensity distributions of the fast and the slow axes. (e) and (f) The experimentally measured intensity distribution observed through the microscope with a 4× objective lens. (g) Color dispersion in planes perpendicular to the optical axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Collimating zone-plate lens fabricated by FsLDW. (a) Top-view SEM image. (b) Magnified SEM image. (c) The schematic image of the optical characterization setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser beam shaping by zone plates. (a) The laser spot without any collimating lens. (b) and (c) The collimated laser spots from an eight-level elliptical zone plate at two positions with an interval of 100 mm. (d) The collimated laser spots with circular eight-level Fresnel zone plate.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rsmin=fs·tan(θs2)=(Ls2tan(θs2)+d)tan(θs2),
Rfmin=ff·tan(θf2)=(Lf2tan(θf2)+d)tan(θf2),
rn=(f+nλ2)2f2,
rm=(f+mλL)2f2,
rm2mλfL.
f=rm2L2mλ=rM2L2Mλ=R2L2Mλ=R22Nλ,
η=sinc2(1/L)=[sin(π/L)π/L]2.
θ0=limzw(z)z=λπw0,
θ0w1(z1)w2(z2)z1z2=w1w2Δz.

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