Abstract

Using a quantum cascade laser emitting at 7.85 μm, a middle infrared active coherent laser spectrometer has been developed for the standoff detection of vapor phase chemicals. The first prototype has been tested using diffuse target backscattering at ranges up to 30m. Exploiting the continuous frequency tuning of the laser source, spectra of water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen peroxide were recorded. A forward model of the instrument was used to perform spectral unmixing and retrieve line-of-sight integrated concentrations and their one-sigma uncertainties. Performance was found to be limited by speckle noise originating from topographic targets. For absorbers with large absorption cross sections such as nitrous oxide (>1019cm2·molecule1), normalized detection sensitivities range between 14 and 0.3ppm·m·Hz1/2, depending on the efficiency of the speckle reduction scheme implemented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Aidam, R.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amediek, A.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bronner, W.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
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Clark, C. D.

DeFeo, W. E.

Degreif, K.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dherbecourt, J. B.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Force, A. P.

Fuchs, F.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts, 2007).

Hancock, G.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, B.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hildenbrand, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hobro, A.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Östmark, and A. Hobro, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hugger, S.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaucikas, M.

V. Vaičikauskas, M. Kaučikas, V. Švedas, and Z. Kuprionis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

Kinzer, M.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuprionis, Z.

V. Vaičikauskas, M. Kaučikas, V. Švedas, and Z. Kuprionis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lambrecht, A.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lösch, R.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, N. A.

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maker, G. T.

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, G. P. A.

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Melkonian, J. M.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, N.

Menzies, R. T.

Mohamed, A. K.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A.

Nikodem, M.

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Sensors 12, 16466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Östmark, H.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Östmark, and A. Hobro, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pal, A.

Patel, C. K. N.

Pettersson, A.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Östmark, and A. Hobro, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raybaut, M.

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reburn, W. J.

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruxton, K.

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, F.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, M. S.

Sigman, M.

Smith, K. M.

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Švedas, V.

V. Vaičikauskas, M. Kaučikas, V. Švedas, and Z. Kuprionis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaicikauskas, V.

V. Vaičikauskas, M. Kaučikas, V. Švedas, and Z. Kuprionis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Helden, J.-P.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Von der Porten, S.

Walker, R.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wallin, S.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Östmark, and A. Hobro, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wöllenstein, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Sensors 12, 16466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Östmark, and A. Hobro, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Opt. B

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, Appl. Opt. B 90, 593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Hardy, M. Raybaut, J. B. Dherbecourt, J. M. Melkonian, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, and M. Lefebvre, Appl. Phys. B 107, 643 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. van Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, Opt. Eng. 49, 111121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, M. Kinzer, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, K. Degreif, and F. Schnürer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruxton, N. A. Macleod, D. Weidmann, G. P. A. Malcolm, and G. T. Maker, Proc. SPIE 8537, 85370I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

V. Vaičikauskas, M. Kaučikas, V. Švedas, and Z. Kuprionis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

M. Nikodem and G. Wysocki, Sensors 12, 16466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical schematic of the ACLaS. M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; AOS, acousto-optical shifter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Speckle image (left panel) and statistical distribution of the heterodyne signal (right panel) for a roughened aluminum target at a distance of 12 m from the instrument. The solid line is the expected distribution for an M parameter of 2.3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ACLaS spectra obtained using a spinning roughened aluminum target at distances of (a), (b) 5.5 m and (c) 7.0 m. The upper parts of each panel show measured data (dots) and corresponding forward model fits (lines) while the lower parts show the residuals. The middle panels show the transmission spectra derived from the retrieved baseline parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) ACLaS spectrum obtained using a stationary painted wooden target at a distance of 30.2 m. The upper part shows measured data (dots) and corresponding forward model fit (line) while the lower part shows the residual. (b) Allan deviation of the retrieved N2O concentration over 100 scans.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Speckle Diversity Parameters (M) and One Sigma Detection Sensitivities (ΔC) Corresponding to the Spectra Shown in Figs. 3 and 4a

Equations (1)

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SNR=iHet2iSN2+iSp2=iHet2iSN2+iHet2M.

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