Abstract

We report on photoluminescence in the 1.3 and 1.7 μm spectral ranges in silicon doped with dysprosium. This is attributed to the Dy3+ internal transitions between the second Dy3+ excited state and the ground state, and between the third Dy3+ excited state and the ground state. Luminescence is achieved by Dy implantation into Si substrates codoped with boron, to form dislocation loops, and show a strong dependence on fabrication process. The spectra consist of several sharp lines with the strongest emission at 1736 nm, observed up to 200 K. No Dy3+ luminescence is observed in samples without B codoping, showing the paramount importance of dislocation loops to enable the Dy emission.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Opt. Lett. 36, 169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lemański and P. J. Dereń, J. Rare Earths 29, 1195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Kenyon, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, R65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park and A. J. Steckl, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 056108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Kenyon, Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963

E. Iwase and S. Nishiyama, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1179 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

Colon, J. E.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Condon, N. J.

Deren, P. J.

K. Lemański and P. J. Dereń, J. Rare Earths 29, 1195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Wiley, 1968).

Fujiwara, Y.

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galata, S.

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Opt. Lett. 36, 169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hengehold, R. L.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Homewood, K. P.

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Opt. Lett. 36, 169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Isogai, Y.

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwase, E.

E. Iwase and S. Nishiyama, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1179 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, S.

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, J.

J. Kenyon, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, R65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kenyon, Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koide, T.

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ledain, S.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemanski, K.

K. Lemański and P. J. Dereń, J. Rare Earths 29, 1195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lourenço, M. A.

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Opt. Lett. 36, 169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. L.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, S.

E. Iwase and S. Nishiyama, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1179 (1963).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S.

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park and A. J. Steckl, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 056108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pomrenke, G. S.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shao, G.

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sididiqui, M. S. A.

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silkowski, E.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

J. H. Park and A. J. Steckl, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 056108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, Y.

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Topp, D. J.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, Y. K.

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.

E. Iwase and S. Nishiyama, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1179 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Milosavljević, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park and A. J. Steckl, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 056108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Pomrenke, E. Silkowski, J. E. Colon, D. J. Topp, Y. K. Yeo, and R. L. Hengehold, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1919 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Rare Earths

K. Lemański and P. J. Dereń, J. Rare Earths 29, 1195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, Nature 410, 192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. B

Y. Fujiwara, T. Koide, S. Jinno, Y. Isogai, and Y. Takeda, Phys. B 308-310, 796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. E

T. Koide, Y. Isogai, Y. Fujiwara, and Y. Takeda, Phys. E 10, 406 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

J. Kenyon, Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. Kenyon, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, R65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

M. A. Lourenço, M. Milosavljević, S. Galata, M. S. A. Sididiqui, G. Shao, R. M. Gwilliam, and K. P. Homewood, Vacuum 78, 551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Wiley, 1968).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PL spectra, measured at 80 K and normalized to the Si band edge peak, from a sample implanted with Dy and incorporating B induced dislocation loops (sample S3), and from a sample implanted with Dy only (sample S0). The Dy implant and anneal conditions were the same for all samples.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dy emission in Si codoped with B at 80 K (this work, sample S3) and in GaAs at 4.2 K (data extracted from [13]) in the 1.3 μm ( 0.9 eV ) and 1.7 μm ( 0.7 eV ) regions. The arrows indicate the highest and lowest energy transitions for each manifold in the Si:B:Dy system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proposed schematic diagram for the energy levels of Dy 3 + in silicon. The energy values are in meV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PL response in the 1.7 μm region as a function of Dy implanted dose ( cm 2 ) for two sets of samples that differ only by the B postimplant annealing conditions prior to the Dy implantation: (a) 950°C for 90 s (samples SA2, SA3, SA53, and SA4) and (b) no B anneal (samples S2, S3, S53, and S4). All samples were annealed at 850°C for 5 min after the Dy implantation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Sample Detailsa

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