Abstract

A novel concept is introduced that utilizes the scattering properties of zinc oxide nanorods to control light guidance and leakage inside optical fibers coated with nanorods. The effect of the hydrothermal growth conditions of the nanorods on light scattering and coupling to optical fiber are experimentally investigated. At optimum conditions, 5% of the incident light is side coupled to the cladding modes. This coupling scheme could be used in different applications such as distributed sensors and light combing. Implementation of the nanorods on fiber provides low cost and controllable nonlithography-based solutions for free space to fiber coupling. Higher coupling efficiencies can be achieved with further optimization.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2010

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 50, 456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Tena-Zaera, J. Elias, and C. Lévy-Clément, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. Ts.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andreevb, A. Ts.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

Atanasov, P. A.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atanasova, G. B.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atanasova, P. A.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baruah, S.

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 50, 456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boman, M.

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Dikovska, A. Og.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dikovskaa, A. O.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doicu, A.

A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles (Springer, 2006).

Dutta, J.

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 50, 456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elias, J.

R. Tena-Zaera, J. Elias, and C. Lévy-Clément, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eremin, Y. A.

A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles (Springer, 2006).

Hari, M.

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

Joseph, S. A.

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

Karakoleva, E. I.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karakolevab, E. I.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klini, A.

Konjhodzic, D.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Lei, H.

Lévy-Clément, C.

R. Tena-Zaera, J. Elias, and C. Lévy-Clément, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Liu, Y.

Marlow, F.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, S.

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

Mazur, E.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, S.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

Nedyalkov, N. N.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

Ronning, C.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Stefanov, P. K.

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanchova, T. R.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugunan, A.

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svacha, G. T.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tena-Zaera, R.

R. Tena-Zaera, J. Elias, and C. Lévy-Clément, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thankappan, A.

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

Voss, T.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warad, H. C.

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles (Springer, 2006).

Xu, C. X.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zafirovab, B. S.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Tena-Zaera, J. Elias, and C. Lévy-Clément, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 233119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

A. O. Dikovskaa, P. A. Atanasova, A. Ts. Andreevb, B. S. Zafirovab, E. I. Karakolevab, and T. R. Stoyanchova, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.

A. Sugunan, H. C. Warad, M. Boman, and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 39, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 50, 456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, Nano Lett. 7, 3675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. E

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, C. X. Xu, and B. K. Tay, Phys. E 21, 103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.

S. Baruah and J. Dutta, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

A. Og. Dikovska, G. B. Atanasova, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. K. Stefanov, P. A. Atanasov, E. I. Karakoleva, and A. Ts. Andreev, Sens. Actuators B 146, 331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles (Springer, 2006).

A. Thankappan, M. Hari, S. Mathew, S. A. Joseph, and V. P. N. Nampoori, in Optics: Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light, AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1391, pp. 514–517.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of two possible configurations of side coupling to cladding modes with guided and leakage intensity responses of light paths in the side coupling configuration, (b) low magnification scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fiber coated with ZnO nanorods, and (c) higher magnification SEM image of the nanorods.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Definition of the polar coordinates and (b) measured polar plot for the ZnO nanorod (grown for 5 h) coated fibers, considering symmetry along the θ direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured side coupling to cladding modes for ZnO growth on stripped multimode fiber for five different concentrations (2–6 mM) of zinc acetate used for growing seed crystals. Images of the output tip of the fibers show relative coupling intensities for the cladding modes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured coupled intensity (solid lines and squared filed marker scaled on the left axis), the average scattering coefficient (circles scaled on the right axis) and the linear fit of the scattering coefficient (dashed line) versus the concentration of zinc acetate used for growing ZnO seed crystals.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured coupling efficiency of as grown ZnO nanorods coupled to MMF (before annealing, solid line) and after annealing at 35°C for 1 h in the atmosphere (dashed line) and (b) forward cross section for the annealed samples versus the ZnO nanorods growth time.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iguide(z)=Ioexp(2αs×(zzo))+I.
Ileak(z)=Iguide×2sinh(αsΔ).
Io=2IsourceCscρaθcπ0πp(θ,φ)sinθdθdφ,
[α12α2NαN]=12Δzln{1Io[I(1)II(2)II(N)I]},

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