Abstract

We investigate the loss mechanism in three-moded multimode-interference couplers that are the building blocks of a compact and low-loss waveguide crossing structure. Broadband silicon waveguide crossing arrays with <0.01  dB insertion loss per crossing are proposed using cascaded multimode-interference couplers, where lateral subwavelength nanostructures are used to reduce the insertions loss. We design and fabricate a 101×101 waveguide crossing array with a pitch of 3.08 μm. Insertion loss of ∼0.02  dB per crossing and crosstalk <−40  dB at 1550 nm operating wavelength and a broad transmission spectrum ranging from 1520 to 1610 nm are experimentally demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 18, 16146 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Manolatou and H. A. Haus, in Passive Components for Dense Optical Integration (Springer, 2002), pp. 97–125.
  4. A. M. Jones, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, and R. A. Norwood, Opt. Express 21, 12002 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2006 (1)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P. J.

Cheben, P.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 18, 16146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-H. Chen and C.-H. Chiu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-H.

C.-H. Chen and C.-H. Chiu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Covey, J.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C. T.

Halir, R.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou and H. A. Haus, in Passive Components for Dense Optical Integration (Springer, 2002), pp. 97–125.

Hosseini, A.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. Kartner, in 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Janz, S.

Jones, A. M.

Kartner, F.

M. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. Kartner, in 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Kwong, D.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. N.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Lentine, A. L.

Maese-Novo, A.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou and H. A. Haus, in Passive Components for Dense Optical Integration (Springer, 2002), pp. 97–125.

Molina-Fernández, I.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Ortega-Monux, A.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

M. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. Kartner, in 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Scarmozzino, R.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Starbuck, A. L.

Subbaraman, H.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Wanguemert-Perez, J.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zavargo-Peche, L.

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-H. Chen and C.-H. Chiu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Hosseini, D. N. Kwong, Y. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Monux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. Wanguemert-Perez, P. Cheben, and J. Schmid, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (2)

C. Manolatou and H. A. Haus, in Passive Components for Dense Optical Integration (Springer, 2002), pp. 97–125.

M. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. Kartner, in 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

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