Abstract

We present a Fourier-domain filtering method for charge-coupled device (CCD)-based thermoreflectance microscopy to improve the thermal imaging speed while maintaining high thermal sensitivity. The time-varying reflected light distribution from the surface of bias-modulated microresistor was recorded by a CCD camera in free-run mode and converted to the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for all pixels of the CCD. After frequency peak filtering followed by inverse FFT, a thermoreflectance image was obtained. The imaging results of the proposed method were quantitatively compared with those of the conventional four-bucket method, showing that the Fourier-domain filtering method can provide thermal imaging 24–42 times faster than the four-bucket method, depending on the required thermal sensitivity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerβen, R. J. Ram, and J. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Breitenstein and M. Langenkamp, Lock-in Thermography—Basics and Use for Functional Diagnostics of Electronic Components (Springer, 2003).

2013 (1)

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breitenstein, O.

O. Breitenstein and M. Langenkamp, Lock-in Thermography—Basics and Use for Functional Diagnostics of Electronic Components (Springer, 2003).

Burzo, M. G.

P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, F.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christofferson, J.

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farzaneh, M.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Filloy, C.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holé, S.

G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hudgings, J.

Hudgings, J. A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

King, W. P.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Komarov, P. L.

P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langenkamp, M.

O. Breitenstein and M. Langenkamp, Lock-in Thermography—Basics and Use for Functional Diagnostics of Electronic Components (Springer, 2003).

Lee, B. J.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lüerßen, D.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerβen, R. J. Ram, and J. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maize, K.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, P. M.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerβen, R. J. Ram, and J. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mica, I.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavageau, S.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pipe, K. P.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polignano, M.-L.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raad, P. E.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mayer, D. Lüerβen, R. J. Ram, and J. Hudgings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Summers, J. A.

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tessier, G.

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, T.

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Tessier, S. Holé, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (2)

M. Farzaneh, K. Maize, D. Lüerβen, J. A. Summers, P. M. Mayer, P. E. Raad, K. P. Pipe, A. Shakouri, R. J. Ram, and J. A. Hudgings, J. Phys. D 42, 143001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tessier, M.-L. Polignano, S. Pavageau, C. Filloy, D. Fournier, F. Cerutti, and I. Mica, J. Phys. D 39, 4159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

P. E. Raad, P. L. Komarov, and M. G. Burzo, Microelectron. J. 39, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. Kim, S. Han, T. Walsh, K. Park, B. J. Lee, W. P. King, and J. Lee, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 034903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Christofferson and A. Shakouri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 24903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

O. Breitenstein and M. Langenkamp, Lock-in Thermography—Basics and Use for Functional Diagnostics of Electronic Components (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the CCD-based TRM setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) resistor sample. (b) Microscope image of the resistor [at the position indicated by the red box in (a)].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Temporal profile taken at an arbitrary pixel point in the resistor area and (b) its FFT spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Thermoreflectance image of the poly-Si resistor sample. (b) Evolution of the thermal sensitivity and the measurement duration time as a function of the number of measurement iterations (N).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Thermoreflectance sensitivity measurements against the measurement duration time using the Fourier-domain filtering method and the four-bucket method. The insets in the figure are surface plots of the thermoreflectance images corresponding to measurements (1) and (2), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement Duration Time Required to Achieve the Same Thermal Sensitivity Value

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