Abstract

We demonstrate single-mode collection efficiency enhancement for free space optical systems using a photonic lantern to collect scattered infrared light from diffuse objects at far- and near-field distances. A single-mode collection efficiency improvement of 8dB is demonstrated in the near-field region relative to standard single-mode fiber. The insertion loss properties of the photonic lantern are also analyzed, and an additional insertion loss penalty is observed for near-field distances when the transmitted beam is collimated. The photonic lantern can be used for coherent detection systems such as light detection and ranging and free-space optical communication with improved collection efficiency and nearly perfect mode matching.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. B. Mark, in Proceedings of the IEEE 1992 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 3, p. 1256.
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Agarwal, A.

I. Ozdur, P. Toliver, A. Agarwal, and T. K. Woodward, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper SW3D.5.

Argyros, A.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, Opt. Lett. 30, 2545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Castellanos, D.

Costello, T.

Cruz, J.

Cuby, J.-G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

Duncan, B. D.

B. D. Duncan, M. B. Mark, and P. F. McManamon, Proceedings of the IEEE 1993 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 2, p. 1133.

Ellis, S. C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Englund, M.

Gatt, P.

Gillingham, P.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, R.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Express 18, 4673 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heimmermann, D.

Horton, A. J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kudielka, K.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lawrence, J. S.

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. H. Sandberg, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Lett. 37, 452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, W.

Leon-Saval, S.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, Opt. Lett. 30, 2545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindelow, P.

P. Lindelow, “Fiber based coherent lidars for remote wind sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Technical University of Denmark, 2007).

Löhmannsröben, H.-G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maack, M. D.

Mangan, B.

Mark, M. B.

B. D. Duncan, M. B. Mark, and P. F. McManamon, Proceedings of the IEEE 1993 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 2, p. 1133.

M. B. Mark, in Proceedings of the IEEE 1992 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 3, p. 1256.

McManamon, P. F.

B. D. Duncan, M. B. Mark, and P. F. McManamon, Proceedings of the IEEE 1993 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 2, p. 1133.

Murphy, D.

Noordegraaf, D.

Ozdur, I.

I. Ozdur, P. Toliver, A. Agarwal, and T. K. Woodward, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper SW3D.5.

Roth, M. M.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryder, S. D.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, R. H.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Stickley, C.

Toliver, P.

I. Ozdur, P. Toliver, A. Agarwal, and T. K. Woodward, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper SW3D.5.

Trinh, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A.

Winzer, P.

Woodward, T. K.

I. Ozdur, P. Toliver, A. Agarwal, and T. K. Woodward, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper SW3D.5.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. C. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. J. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. A. Birks, J. S. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. D. Ryder, and C. Trinh, Nat. Commun. 2, 581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

M. B. Mark, in Proceedings of the IEEE 1992 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 3, p. 1256.

B. D. Duncan, M. B. Mark, and P. F. McManamon, Proceedings of the IEEE 1993 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON), Vol. 2, p. 1133.

I. Ozdur, P. Toliver, A. Agarwal, and T. K. Woodward, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper SW3D.5.

P. Lindelow, “Fiber based coherent lidars for remote wind sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Technical University of Denmark, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the photonic lantern.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output signal power distribution of the 19 SMF port where the input power from the multimode section is 11.1 mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for the free space to fiber collection efficiency measurement. PD: photodetector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical speckle pattern, imaged by a 320×256 InGaAs camera (d=0.5m) at the receiver position.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simplified forms of the collimated and focused case.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Collection efficiency simulation (solid lines) and experimental (points) results for the near- and far-fields. (The transition from the near-field to far-field occurs at the Fraunhofer distance, which is 5m).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental measurement of the photonic lantern multimode to single-mode transition losses for different target distances.

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