Abstract

Silicon reflection-type arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) consisting of all straight array waveguides are experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The AWG has 14 output channels with 400 GHz channel spacing and a footprint of 230μm×530μm. The minimum on-chip loss of 3.0 dB and crosstalk of 20dB are achieved by using a second-order distributed Bragg reflector facet.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 67 (2012).
  2. T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).
  3. D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).
  4. D. Dai, X. Fu, Y. Shi, and S. He, Opt. Lett. 35, 2594 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Okamoto, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 14 (2012).
  6. J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
  7. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2006) Chap. 4.
  8. N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).
  9. K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).
  10. S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Okamoto, “Athermal silicon photonics array waveguide grating (AWG) employing different core geometries in the array waveguides,” U.S. patent application2011/0142396 (June16, 2011).
  12. Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Appl. Opt. 51, 1251 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, and P. C. Clemens, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’98, Madrid, Spain (1998).
  15. H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

2012 (3)

2010 (2)

D. Dai, X. Fu, Y. Shi, and S. He, Opt. Lett. 35, 2594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

2004 (2)

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

2001 (1)

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

1998 (1)

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

1997 (2)

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).

Baets, R.

L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Appl. Opt. 51, 1251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Bogaerts, W.

L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Appl. Opt. 51, 1251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Brouckaert, J.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Choo, H. R.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Clemens, P. C.

G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, and P. C. Clemens, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’98, Madrid, Spain (1998).

Dai, D.

Dumon, P.

L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Appl. Opt. 51, 1251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Fu, X.

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Goh, T.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).

Han, X.

Hanawa, F.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Heise, G.

G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, and P. C. Clemens, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’98, Madrid, Spain (1998).

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Jian, X.

Kaneko, A.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Kikuchi, N.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Kim, D. C.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Kim, H. M.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Kim, J.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Kim, J. S.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Kodaka, Y.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

Kondo, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

Morita, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Morthier, G.

Okamoto, H.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 14 (2012).

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

K. Okamoto, “Athermal silicon photonics array waveguide grating (AWG) employing different core geometries in the array waveguides,” U.S. patent application2011/0142396 (June16, 2011).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2006) Chap. 4.

Oku, S.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Pathak, S.

Pyun, K. E.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Schneider, H. W.

G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, and P. C. Clemens, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’98, Madrid, Spain (1998).

Selvaraja, S.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Selvaraja, S. K.

L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, Appl. Opt. 51, 1251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Shibata, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Sugita, A.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).

Sumida, S.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).

Takahashi, H.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Tanobe, H.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

Teng, J.

Tohmori, Y.

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

van Thourhout, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 67 (2012).

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

Yoo, K. H.

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Yoshikuni, Y.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, and S. Sumida, Electron. Lett. 33, 1945 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 67 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C351 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. C. Kim, H. M. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. R. Choo, J. Kim, K. E. Pyun, and K. H. Yoo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L36 (2001).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

K. Okamoto, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 14 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Tech. Lett. (3)

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kodaka, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and Y. Tohmori, Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 2481 (2004).

Other (3)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2006) Chap. 4.

G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, and P. C. Clemens, presented at European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’98, Madrid, Spain (1998).

K. Okamoto, “Athermal silicon photonics array waveguide grating (AWG) employing different core geometries in the array waveguides,” U.S. patent application2011/0142396 (June16, 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Reflection-type AWG and (b) transmission-type AWG. Insets in (a) show the cross section of the Si-rib array waveguide and the Si-wire waveguide and an enlarged view of the 1×1 MMI mode filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement results of the 14 channel 400 GHz Si reflection-type AWG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra for the center input (black lines) and off-centered (colored lines) light coupling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Standard layout of I/O waveguides which is made possible by use of the MMI mode filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission of one of the 14 channels of eight AWGs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic configuration of the proposed athermal Si R-AWG consisting of silicon rib and slot waveguides.

Equations (2)

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XT10Log(δncLcλ)2,
λ=2(n^cΔsncΔ)m=ncΔLm,

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