Abstract

Polymer micro-fibers with inscribed Bragg gratings are reported in this Letter. Starting with a single-mode polymer optical fiber and implementing a two-stage tapering process, a 16 μm diameter micro-fiber is fabricated and a Bragg grating is inscribed in it that exhibits a peak reflected wavelength circa 1530 nm. The growth dynamics of the polymer micro-fiber Bragg grating are also observed and analyzed. A maximum reflectivity of 5% is obtained after an exposure time of 3 min to a 50 mW power He–Cd laser of 325 nm wavelength. The temperature and strain characterization results of the micro-fiber Bragg grating with different diameters are also presented. Such polymer micro-fiber Bragg gratings can be used as sensors for high-sensitivity measurements in a number of application areas.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).
  11. K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. F. Zhang and X. M. Tao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 310 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhang and X. M. Tao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

Ambikiarajah, E.

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Bartlet, H.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. D.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Boyd, I. W.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, S.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, W. J.

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, K.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaplin, R. A.

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

Chen, X. F. G.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Chu, P. L.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

Ding, M.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dobb, H. L.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Kalli, K.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Koh, C. G.

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Komodromos, M.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kou, J.-L.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, K. S. C.

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Liu, B.

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lou, X.

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

Lu, Y.-Q.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Quek, S. T.

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, G.

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, D. S.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Scully, P. J.

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

Z. F. Zhang and X. M. Tao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Themistos, C.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Wieduwilt, T.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Zhang, C.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

Zhang, Z. F.

Z. F. Zhang and X. M. Tao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 935 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhang and X. M. Tao, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. Rajan, B. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Ambikiarajah, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1794 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. (1)

G. D. Peng, P. L. Chu, X. Lou, and R. A. Chaplin, J. Electr. Electron. Eng., Aust. 15, 289 (1995).

J. Sens. (1)

K. S. C. Kuang, S. T. Quek, C. G. Koh, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, J. Sens. 2009, 312053 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

T. Wieduwilt, S. Bruckner, and H. Bartlet, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kalli, H. L. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Carroll, C. Themistos, M. Komodromos, G. D. Peng, Q. Fang, and I. W. Boyd, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

G. D. Peng, Z. Xiong, and P. L. Chu, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

J.-L. Kou, M. Ding, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Lu, F. Xu, and G. Brambilla, Sensors 12, 8861 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, C. Zhang, I. Johnson, X. F. G. Chen, D. S. Rodriguez, J. D. Barton, C. Ye, G. D. Peng, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers, Sydney, Australia (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup to fabricate polymer micro-fibers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micrographs of (a) original polymer fiber, (b) etched polymer fiber, and (c) polymer micro-fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Observed growth in wavelength peak with UV exposure. (b) Variation in peak intensity with UV exposure time (resolution bandwidth of the OSA was 0.2 nm). [Subset (a), spectrum of the grating after readjusting the coupling.]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Comparison of reflection spectra of the original PFBG and the polymer micro-fiber grating and (b) transmission spectrum of a 16 μm diameter polymer micro-fiber grating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Temperature sensitivity and (b) strain sensitivity of original PFBG and polymer micro-fiber grating.

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