Abstract

We demonstrate a reconfigurable optical transmitter of higher-order modulation formats including pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) signals and quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) signals. We generated six different modulation formats by multiplexing 10Gbit/s on–off-keying (OOK) signals (10 Gbaud binary phase-shift keying, 4-PAM, 8-PAM quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-QAM and 16-star-QAM with error-vector magnitudes (EVMs) of 8.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 8.2%, 7.2%, and 6.9%, respectively) and 80Gbit/s 16-QAM with an EVM of 8.5%, as well as 120Gbit/s 64-QAM with an EVM of 7.1%, using two or three 40Gbit/s QPSK signals, respectively. We also successfully transmitted the generated 16-QAM signals through a 100 km transmission line with negligible power penalty.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

2010

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto and A. Chiba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and C. Xu, Opt. Express 18, 333 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Ahmed, N.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bakhtiari, Z.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

Chiba, A.

T. Sakamoto and A. Chiba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chitgarha, M. R.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Dai, Y.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, J.-Y.

Fazel, I.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Fejer, M. M.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gerstel, O.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Gnauck, A. H.

Haney, M. W.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, H.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Jorge, F.

Kawanishi, T.

Khaleghi, S.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Koizumi, Y.

Konczykowska, A.

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Lipson, M.

Lu, G.-W.

Ma, Z.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Maruta, A.

Masuda, H.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Miyoshi, Y.

Mori, K.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Nakazawa, M.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Paraschis, L.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Peckham, D. W.

Riet, M.

Sakamoto, T.

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Opt. Express 21, 6213 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto and A. Chiba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, A.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Tur, M.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Wang, J.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Willner, A.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Willner, A. E.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Xu, C.

Yamada, T.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamamoto, S.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamazaki, E.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamazaki, H.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yilmaz, O. F.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yoshida, M.

Yoshida, Y.

Zhu, B.

Ziyadi, M.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Sakamoto and A. Chiba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

S. Khaleghi, O. F. Yilmaz, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Tur, N. Ahmed, S. Nuccio, I. Fazel, X. Wu, M. W. Haney, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Z. Bakhtiari, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, M. Ziyadi, Z. Ma, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper CTh1H.3.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Ma, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, and A. Willner, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2012), paper P3.14.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual block diagram of a reconfigurable optical QAM transmitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generating (a) 16- and (b) 64-QAM signals using four OOK signals and three QPSK signals, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for the proposed optical QAM transmitter. PM, phase modulator; PC, polarization controller; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; DLI, delay-line interferometer; DCF, dispersion-compensating fiber; BPF, bandpass filter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Higher-level modulation format generation using OOK signals. Optical spectra of (a) phase conjugate copy generation stage (PPLN-1 output) and (b) multiplexing stage (PPLN-2 output). Optical constellation diagrams of (c) 10Gbit/s BPSK, (d) 20Gbit/s 4-PAM, (e) 30Gbit/s 8-PAM, (f) 20Gbit/s QPSK, (g) 40Gbit/s 16-QAM, and (h) 40Gbit/s 16-star-QAM with EVMs of 8.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 8.2%, 6.9%, and 6.4%, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Higher-level modulation format generation using QPSK signals. Optical spectra of (a) the phase conjugate copy generation stage (PPLN-1 output) and (b) the multiplexing stage (PPLN-2 output). Optical constellation diagrams of generated (c) 80Gbit/s 16-QAM with multiplexing of two QPSK signals, (d) 80Gbit/s 16-QAM with multiplexing of a QPSK signal with a CW pump and mixing with another QPSK signal, and (e) 120Gbit/s 64-QAM with EVMs of 9.1%, 8.5%, and 7.1%. (f) BER measurements of the back-to-back (B2B) signals and the transmitted signals.

Equations (2)

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Xi(t)S02(t)×Si(t)×Si*(tT)
SMux(t)=Sp*(t)×i=1NaiXi(t),

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