Abstract

Repetitive wet thermal oxidations of a tapered oxide aperture in a micropillar structure are demonstrated. After each oxidation step the confined optical modes are analyzed at room temperature. Three regimes are identified. First, the optical confinement increases when the aperture oxidizes toward the center. Then, the cavity modes shift by more than 30 nm when the taper starts to oxidize through the center, leading to a decrease in the optical path length. Finally, the resonance frequency levels off when the aperture is oxidized all the way through the micropillar, but confined optical modes with a high quality factor remain. This repetitive oxidation technique therefore enables precise control of the optical cavity volume or wavelength.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Insititution of Engineering and Technology, 2005).
  3. N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. R. Hadley, Opt. Lett. 20, 1483 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Almuneau, G.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, C. I. H.

O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Insititution of Engineering and Technology, 2005).

Atkinson, P.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baca, A. G.

A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Insititution of Engineering and Technology, 2005).

Badolato, A.

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, M. P.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bardinal, V.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. J.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blum, O.

O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bossuyt, R.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouscayrol, L.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmeester, D.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Claudon, J.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collière, P.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Condé, M.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ctistis, G.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, D. J. P.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feld, S. A.

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, C.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, J. M.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, J.

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Hartsuiker, A.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haupt, F.

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H. Q.

O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaspi, R.

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loehr, J. P.

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lofgreen, D. D.

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamuro, T.

A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakher, M.

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakher, M. T.

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, A.

A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sherriff, R. E.

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Snijders, H.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N. G.

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suarez, I.

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suntrup, D. J.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Truong, T.-A.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Pol, E.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiemeri, J.

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. G. Stoltz, M. Rakher, S. Strauf, A. Badolato, D. D. Lofgreen, P. M. Petroff, L. A. Coldren, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bakker, D. J. Suntrup, H. Snijders, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bennett, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, I. Farrer, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Blum, C. I. H. Ashby, and H. Q. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. A. Feld, J. P. Loehr, R. E. Sherriff, J. Wiemeri, and R. Kaspi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Nat. Photonics 1, 704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Ctistis, A. Hartsuiker, E. van der Pol, J. Claudon, W. L. Vos, and J. M. Gérard, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. T. Rakher, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 097403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, F. Haupt, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. Gudat, D. Ding, M. P. van Exter, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Sakamoto, H. Nakayama, and T. Nakamuro, Proc. SPIE 4649, 211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Almuneau, R. Bossuyt, P. Collière, L. Bouscayrol, M. Condé, I. Suarez, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Insititution of Engineering and Technology, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of the three etched trenches that form a micropillar mesa connected to the bulk material and (b) SEM image of the FIB cross section from the sidewall of an etched trench to the bulk material. AlxOy is darker than the AlxGa1xAs layers [Courtesy of H. Miro (Kavli NanoLab Delft)]. (c) The different AlxGa1xAs layers that make up the aperture and the active region in the center of the micropillar structure. Of the top and bottom DBR mirrors, typically consisting of 30 layer pairs, only a couple λ/4 layers are shown. InAs self-assembled quantum dots are located in the center of the GaAs active region in an antinode of the intracavity intensity, while the AlAs layer in the aperture is located at a node.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of position-dependent reflectance measurements, obtained after the 18th oxidation and a total oxidation time of 187 min. When a cavity resonance is hit, the reflectance decreases (light color). The shape of the modes clearly indicates Hermite–Gaussian modes. The labels denote the modes and the wavelengths selected from the reflectance spectrometer spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength of the three lowest-order Hermite–Gaussian modes, determined at room temperature in between every oxidation step, as a function of the total preceding oxidation time. The wavelengths for different polarizations are shown by dots, and the average is indicated with a line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength splitting between the fundamental and first-order Hermite–Gaussian modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Reflection measurements taken at the red side of the DBR stop band using a focused 1064 nm laser that was scanned across the micropillar center. Light (dark) areas correspond to a high (low) reflectance. Regions with a similar reflectance have the same amount of oxide in the aperture region. The label on each scan is the regime number and the total time of all the preceding repetitive oxidations (see main text). (b) Schematic of the aperture region with the oxide shown in red. We deduced the oxide extent in the different layers from the reflection measurements in (a) and by analyzing the optical modes. The white arrows indicate that the oxidation proceeds much faster horizontally than vertically on this scale, which is largely expanded in the vertical direction.

Metrics