Abstract

We report on the design and implementation of a prototype of optical waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG crystals by using femtosecond-laser irradiation. In this prototype, two concentric tubular structures with nearly circular cross sections of different diameters have been inscribed in the Nd:YAG crystals, generating double-cladding waveguides. Under 808 nm optical pumping, waveguide lasers have been realized in the double-cladding structures. Compared with single-cladding waveguides, the concentric tubular structures, benefiting from the large pump area of the outermost cladding, possess both superior laser performance and nearly single-mode beam profile in the inner cladding. Double-cladding waveguides of the same size were fabricated and coated by a thin optical film, and a maximum output power of 384 mW and a slope efficiency of 46.1% were obtained. Since the large diameters of the outer claddings are comparable with those of the optical fibers, this prototype paves a way to construct an integrated single-mode laser system with a direct fiber-waveguide configuration.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 100, 131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2002 (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Ams, M.

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff, K. Kuan, M. Ams, and M. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Brambilla, G.

Büchter, D.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 18620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. Lu, Opt. Express 19, 12503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201300025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.

Dubs, C.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff, H.

Fechner, M.

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Gross, S.

Grundkötter, W.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, N.

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 100, 131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hilbert, V.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hu, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jaque, D.

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 18620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilan, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, Opt. Express 15, 13266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Kuan, K.

Lagoudakis, P.

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Lu, Q.

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meilan, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Mezentsev, V.

Min, Y. H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Nolte, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nouroozi, R.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A.

Orlov, S.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, A.

Petermann, K.

Piper, J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quiring, V.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, F.

Reza, S.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, R.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ringleb, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilan, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, Opt. Express 15, 13266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J.-P.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Sohler, W.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Torchia, G. A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilan, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, Opt. Express 15, 13266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vannahme, C.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 18620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. Lu, Opt. Express 19, 12503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201300025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff, K. Kuan, M. Ams, and M. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yang, J.

Zeil, P.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. A 89, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 100, 131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. B 95, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

F. Chen, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 622 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. Piper, and M. Withford, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 535 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. H. Min, Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, Prog. Quantum Electron. 35, 159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201300025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Fabrication schematic of fs-laser inscription process in Nd:YAG crystals, and optical images of (b) double-cladding waveguides and single-cladding waveguides with diameters of (c) 100 and (d) 30 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spatial distributions of (a) pressure, (b) FWHM, and (c) intensity corresponding to the F 3 / 2 4 I 9 / 2 4 inter-Stark level emission line of Nd 3 + in the double-cladding waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Near-field intensity profiles of the TE mode of the laser for the waveguides at (a)–(c) 632.8 nm and (d)–(f) 1064 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output power of the generated lasers at 1064 nm as a function of the absorbed pump power at 808 nm. The inset graph shows the spectrum of the laser at 1064 nm (0.5 nm FWHM).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output power of the laser as a function of the absorbed power at room temperature. The inset graph displays the laser mode of the laser from the waveguide cores at both TE and TM polarization.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of Double-Cladding Waveguides

Metrics