Abstract

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) laser emission has been observed from rhodamine B doped polymer optical graded index (GI) fiber by transverse pumping with a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The propagation and confinement of these modes were also observed. A variation in the free spectral range from 0.29 to 1.24 nm is obtained along the length due to the confinement of WGMs in the GI fiber.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Kailasnath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Pramana 75, 923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
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G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Lett. 35, 1893 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, Opt. Express 18, 17764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

2007

2006

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[CrossRef]

2000

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

Arnold, S.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).

Chang, R. K.

Christiansen, M. B.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).

Eschenbaum, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friedlein, J.

Fuchs, J.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, Opt. Lett. 28, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V.

Imai, N.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kailasnath, M.

M. Kailasnath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Pramana 75, 923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

Kinoshita, T.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).

Kobayashi, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 27, 486 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Balslev, A. Mironov, D. Nilsson, and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 14, 2170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Kuriki, K.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Lock, J. A.

Maleki, L.

Manchee, C.

Mappes, T.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A.

McFarlane, S.

Meldrum, A.

Mironov, A.

Monifi, F.

Murugan, G. S.

Nampoori, V.

Nampoori, V. P. N.

M. Kailasnath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Pramana 75, 923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Nienhaus, G. U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

Nishihara, S.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Okamoto, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Özdemir, S. K.

Pöllinger, M.

Poon, A. W.

Radhakrishnan, P.

M. Kailasnath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Pramana 75, 923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

M. Sheeba, K. Thomas, M. Rajesh, V. Nampoori, C. Vallabhan, and P. Radhakrishnan, Appl. Opt. 46, 8089 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, M.

Rajmangal, R.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A.

Schleede, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

Seidel, D.

Sheeba, M.

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silverstone, J.

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sreejaya, T. S.

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Stone, A. D.

Tagaya, A.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takezawa, Y.

Tamura, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Thomas, K.

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tureci, H. E.

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C.

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Vannahme, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Yamamoto, T.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

M. Kailasnath, T. S. Sreejaya, R. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 687 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pramana

M. Kailasnath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, Pramana 75, 923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Lasing spectrum from RhB doped GI fiber with transverse pumping. The inset shows the magnified version of the highest intensity lasing peak with a Gaussian fit. (b) Temporal profile of the emitted laser and pump pulse.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Confinement and propagation of whispering gallery spirals (modes) in a GI fiber when excited with a pump beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

WGM spectra from RhB doped GI fiber with different propagation lengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of FSR with propagation distance.

Equations (1)

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FSR=λ2πDeffneff,

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